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Zacour, N. P.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The impact of the Crusades on Europe

IV: Financing the Crusades,   pp. 116-149 PDF (13.4 MB)

Page 140

tinuing finance. It may be supposed that crusaders received alms like the
pilgrims, perhaps went as substitutes for others, but none of the later financial
organization of the penitential system yet existed. Only the mariners are
known to have used corporative methods of financing their expeditions. Following
in the pilgrim's pattern, the crusader of 1096 generally provided for his
financial support privately and individually. 
 During the first half of the twelfth century methods of financing crusades
remained essentially the same as at the beginning. Each crusader, like the
viscount of Bourges, sold his lands or saved or borrowed or plundered the
money he needed to achieve his vow. However, the clergy were already being
taxed to support others on the crusade. And the military orders were organized
and began to accumulate the endowments which enabled them to become a standing
army of crusaders in the Holy Land. 
 The second great expedition revealed considerable development in crusade
finance, at least among the French participants. Louis VII taxed his subjects
for his crusade. In his army bishops redeemed crusading vows for money, and
there can be little doubt of the prevalence of substitution. The king, and
very likely others, employed the financial facilities of the Templars to
transport and borrow money. The wealth of both the Temple and the Hospital
shows the growth of alms and legacies for the crusade. For this crusade Eugenius
III issued his bull Quantum praedecessores, setting forth the privileges
of crusaders. In all these ways social financing of the crusade had grown
since the initial conquest of the land beyond the sea, yet the overwhelming
impression remains that each crusader financed his own peregrinatio individually.
 Moslem victories evoked a new response among western Christians to the problem
of financing the crusades. This was universal taxation, which reached its
peak with the Saladin Tithe of 1188. Presumably this tax in large part financed
the Third Crusade: it was said to have yielded 70,000 pounds sterling in
England alone.76 But Henry II obtained 60,000 pounds at the same time from
the Jews, and Richard I raised substantial sums in addition. The great wealth
of Richard gave him a larger command than just the men of his own dominions
and perhaps made possible such success as the expedition achieved. The military
orders played an increasingly important role, largely supported by the papal
development of the collection of alms, legacies, and redemptions of vows.
Yet one cannot gainsay the primary importance of individual financing. Many
crusaders pledged or sold their prop 
76. Gervase of Canterbury, Historical Works, ed. Stubbs (Rolls Series, 73),
I, 422. 

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