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Zacour, N. P.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The impact of the Crusades on Europe
(1989)

IV: Financing the Crusades,   pp. 116-149 PDF (13.4 MB)


Page 119

 Ch. IV FINANCING THE CRUSADES 119 
 From the First Crusade to the last the alienation of property by crusaders
reveals the failure of booty, current income, and savings to support their
expeditions. A man who had a family or expected to return from the Holy Land
would hesitate to dispose of the source of his and his family's livelihood,
and it may be presumed that men sold their lands only as a last resort. But
the examples are too numerous to name more than a few. For the First Crusade
Godfrey of Bouillon sold his county of Verdun and other lands to bishop Richer,
while for the Crusade of 1101 viscount Odo Arpin of Bourges sold his city
and county to king Philip I of France.9 Richard the Lionhearted sold the
homage of the king of Scotland, which his father had so recently won, and
swore he would sell London if he could find a buyer. 10 Fifty years later
the count of Macon, John de Braine, sold his fief to king Louis IX.~ Throughout
the period less prominent men sold what they could of their lands, burgage
tenements, and tithes. 12 As Ambroise wrote of the Third Crusade, 
And none to sell his heritage 
Delayed the holy pilgrimage. 13 
Though sales of chattels can rarely be documented from the records, the chroniclers
leave no doubt that crusaders also disposed of their stock and other valuables
as well. For example, Simon of Montfort sold his wood of Leicester for 1,000
pounds to finance his crusade in 
1240.14 
 Crusaders preferred not to sell their property outright. Count John of Macon
sold his fief subject to the provision of a life pension for 
 9. Orderic Vitalis, Historia ecciesiastica, ed. Auguste Le Prévost
(Société de l'histoire de France; 5 vols., Paris, 1838—1855),
IV, 16, 119; Chronicon SanctiHubertiAndaginensis, ed. Ludwig C. Bethmann
and Wilhelm Wattenbach, MGH, SS, VIII, 615. 
 10. Roger of Hoveden, Chronica, ed. Stubbs (Rolls Series, 51), III, 13—15,
24—26; William of Newburgh, Historia rerum Anglicarum, ed. Richard
Howlett in Chronicles of the Reigns of Stephen, Henry II, and Richard I (Rolls
Series, 132-I), pp. 304—306. 
 11. Layettes du trésor des chartes, ed. Alexandre Teulet et al. (5
vols., Paris, 1863—1909), II, no. 2776. 
 12. E.g., Les Registres de Grégoire IX, ed. Lucien Auvray (Paris,
1896 if.), II, no. 4204; 
Beatrice N. Siedschlag, English Participation in the Crusades, 1150-1220
(Menasha, Wisc., 
1939), appendix A, 1:10, 11:154, and IV:14; Chronica monasterii de Melsa,
ed. Edward A. Bond 
(Rolls Series, 43), I, 220; "Document concernant les seigneurs de Ham," ed.
Arthur de Marsy, 
AOL, 11-2 (1884), 159—163; Cartulaire de Ia léproserie du Grand-Beaulieu,
ed. René Merlet et al. 
(Chartres, 1909), no. 130; P.R.O., Great Cowcher of the Duchy of Lancaster,
DL 36/1, fol. 71; 
P.R.O., Ancient Deeds, E 210/3197, 3282; Bibi. nat., MS. Moreau 92, fols.
34, 171—173. 
 13. Ambroise, The Crusade of Richard Lion-Heart, ed. and tr. John L. LaMonte
and Merton J. Hubert (CURC, 34; New York, 1941), lines 67—68. 
 14. Matthew Paris, Chronica majora, IV, 7. 


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