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Baldwin, M. W. (ed.) / The first hundred years
(1969)

XII: The Foundation of the Latin States, 1099-1118,   pp. 368-409 PDF (16.5 MB)


Page 408

408 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES I 
Alexius' successors, they had no basis in his own conduct, but originated
chiefly in the shrewd propaganda attempt of his enemy Bohemond to cast a
cloak of justification over his own marauding. 
 Alexius had profited from the First Crusade and from his maritime strength
by recovering the Anatolian littoral, but this territorial gain was partially
offset by the loss of Cilicia — acquired only in 1099, lost in 1101,
and retaken in 1104 — definitively in i io8 to Tancred, and by the
suppression of his nominal Armenian vassals by the counts of Edessa between
1097 (Tell Bashir) and 1117 (Gargar and Cyrrhus), with Gabriel of Melitene
overwhelmed by the Turks in 1103. By i i i8 no portion of the crusading arena
was under Greek control, and none under that of Armenians except in the Taurus
mountains north of Cilicia, where Toros (IIoo—1129) — son of
Constantine, son of ]~oupen — still held Partzapert and Vahka, and
He~oum, son of Oshin, ruled at Lampron. The population of Cilicia, and of
that part of the county of Edessa which lay west of the Euphrates, remained
largely Armenian, with a mutually antagonistic admixture of Orthodox Greeks
and Syrian Jacobites, all of whom had quickly learned to detest their Frankish
overlords. 
 The year i i i8 therefore marks the end of an era. This is particularly
true because of the death of Baldwin I of Jerusalem. He was the last of the
original leaders of the First Crusade, with the exception of Robert of Normandy,
who died in I 134, after many years as a prisoner of king Henry I of England.
Godfrey, Raymond, Bohemond, and Tancred, all of whom had elected to stay
in the east as builders of states, had passed. Of these Baldwin was probably
the ablest. He was certainly the most successful as a prince. He founded
the first Latin state in the east, the county of Edessa. He was virtually
the founder and was for eighteen years the ruler of another, Jerusalem, which
he transformed from an ecclesiastical state into a monarchy. He even had
a hand in the capture of the city of Tripoli and in the establishment of
the fourth and last state, the county of Tripoli. 
 With small means Baldwin accomplished much. He founded the county of Edessa
with a mere handful of knights. As Godfrey's successor at Jerusalem he took
over a weak state torn by factionalism and surrounded by enemies. He left
it united and powerful. He found it in economic ruin. He revived and maintained
commerce with the people he had come to fight, the Moslems. When he arrived
he controlled but one port, Jaffa. When he died he ruled all but two along
his coast, Tyre and Ascalon. He never 


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