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Baldwin, M. W. (ed.) / The first hundred years
(1969)

XII: The Foundation of the Latin States, 1099-1118,   pp. 368-409 PDF (16.5 MB)


Page 399

Ch. XII THE FOUNDATION OF THE LATIN STATES 399 
 For a number of years after the Franks took Tripoli the history of all four
Latin states tended to run in the same channel. This was because the Turks
of Iraq, aroused by the fall of Tripoli, were now disposed to unite and take
the offensive. Therefore, the Latin states had to stand together. The jihãd
of the Turks was authorized by the Selchflkid sultan Muhammad. There soon
emerged as its moving spirit a devoted Moslem, Sharaf-ad-Din Maudüd,
lord of Mosul since 1 108, and a worthy forerunner of 'Imad-ad-Din Zengi,
NUr-ad-Din, and Saladin (Salah-ad-Din). Maudüd acted as Mu hammad's
commander-in-chief. It was his mission to lead the Selchflkids of Iraq in
a series of dangerous attacks upon the Franks.36 
 Maudüd's first campaign was in 1110. He ravaged the lands of Edessa
in the spring. Baldwin of Le Bourg called for help. Bald win of Jerusalem,
after finishing the siege of Beirut, May 13, appeared in the north in the
early summer. Bertram of Tripoli and two Armenian princes, Kogh Yasil of
Kesoun and abü-l-Gharib (West Armenian, Abigharib) of Bira (Birejik),
also came. Tancred did not respond. He resented Le Bourg's possession of
Edessa. King Baldwin, wishing to preserve the unity attained the year before
at Tripoli, summoned Tancred to join the rest of the Franks, and if he had
grievances, to present them. It was apparently a direct appeal, not a feudal
summons, for Antioch was not a fief of Jerusalem. Its sanction was both crusader
sentiment and the power of the coalition, which Albert of Aix says disposed
of twen ty-five thousand men. Tancred came, reluctantly, went through the
forms of reconciliation with Le Bourg, and soon withdrew. The other allies,
not daring to remain long absent from their lands, prepared to go home also.
They provisioned and garrisoned the city of Edessa, evacuated the agrarian
population, and crossed the Euphrates. Maudüd, now joined by Tughtigin
of Damascus, ap peared and killed five thousand Armenians before they could
cross. He then devastated the whole countryside of Edessa on his way back
to Iraq. The county of Edessa, especially the part east of the Euphrates,
never recovered from this blow. Nor was this all. The Franks of Edessa now
in their weakness became suspicious, 
nection with Byzantium became increasingly nominal. Tripoli thereafter depended
more heavily upon her feudal relationship to Jerusalem for protection, however,
although retaining a very real independence. 
 Regarding the relation between Jerusalem and Antioch, cahen, La Syrie du
nord, p. 246, and Nicholson, Tancred, p. 186, respectively write that Baldwin
had only a moral not a feudal ascendancy over Antioch. 
 36 For MaudUd's career see H. S. Fink, "Mawdud of Mosul, Precursor of Saladrn,"
The Muslim World, XLIII (1953), 18—27. 


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