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Baldwin, M. W. (ed.) / The first hundred years
(1969)

XII: The Foundation of the Latin States, 1099-1118,   pp. 368-409 PDF (16.5 MB)


Page 393

Ch. XII THE FOUNDATION OF THE LATIN STATES 393 
arch of the Armenian Church, with great honor, probably in 1103. Thus he
sought the favor of his Armenian subjects. He chose as his chief vassal his
kinsman Joscelin of Courtenay, recently arrived from France. He gave Joscelin
the great fief of Tell Bashir, lying between the Euphrates and the borders
of Antioch. Finally, in 1103 he helped procure the ransom of Bohemond of
Antioch, with whom he could cooperate, in place of Tancred, with whom he
could not. We have seen that the immediate results were the attacks upon
Ridvan of Aleppo in 1103, and the Harran campaign of 1104, which led to the
capture of Baldwin and Joscelin by the Turks. Then followed the short regency
of Tancred in Edessa, the departure of Bohemond for Europe, the second regency
of Tancred in Antioch, and Tancred's bestowal of Edessa upon his cousin,
Richard of Salerno, all in the year 1104. 
 Richard lacked ability. He did not hold in check the tyranny and greed of
his Frankish followers. He rapidly lost the loyalty of his Armenian subjects.
Stevenson is doubtless correct in saying that the authority of the Franks
was confined to the garrison towns. As a result the territory of Edessa was
open to invasion. Chokürmish of Mosul raided the countryside in 1105
and Kilij Arslan of Iconium did the same in 1 106 and 1107. Therefore Richard's
rule of Edessa (1 104-1 108) was a period of great weak ness for this exposed
northern state. 
 While Richard governed Edessa, Baldwin of Le Bourg experienced changing
fortunes in captivity. Shortly after his capture in 1104 by Sokman of Mardin
he was kidnapped by ChOkürmish of Mosul. He fell into the hands of Chavli
Saqaveh when the latter con quered Mosul, probably late in 1107. The growth
of Chavli's power soon aroused the jealousy of the Selchükid sultan
Muhammad, son of the great conqueror Malik- Shah. Muhammad commissioned Sharaf-ad-Din
Maudüd, of whom we shall hear later, to take Mosul from Chavil. Chavli
now did an astonishing thing. He offered Le Bourg liberty in return for an
alliance against Maudüd, in addition to a ransom. Baldwin accepted,
and was released, prob ably in the summer of 1 io8. He went to Antioch and
demanded of Tancred the return of Edessa. According to Matthew of Edessa,
Baldwin was refused because he would not accept it as a fief from Tancred.
Tancred's selfishness blinded him to the fact that he and Baldwin of Le Bourg,
by taking the side of the rebel Chavil, could deal the Selchükid power
a dangerous blow. Le Bourg at once turned for support to the Armenian prince
Kogh Vasil of Kesoun, who feared Tancred, and to Chavli. Border fighting
developed, 


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