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Baldwin, M. W. (ed.) / The first hundred years
(1969)

XII: The Foundation of the Latin States, 1099-1118,   pp. 368-409 PDF (16.5 MB)


Page 390

390 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES I 29 For the gains of R?dvan see Kamãl-ad-Din
(RHC, Or., III), p. 592, and for those ofthe Byzantines, Anna Comnena, Alexiad,
III, 47—49; Radulf of Caen, p. 722. 
by Sokman and Le Bourg who was kidnapped from Sokman's tent by Chökürmish.
Ridvan of Aleppo, who had done nothing, profited greatly. With almost no
fighting he won back from Antioch the barrier fortresses of al_Fücah,
SarmIn, Ma~arratMi~rIn, and Artãli, whose people admitted his men,
and Laimin, Kafar~ab, Ma'arrat-an-Nu'män, and Albara, whose garrisons
fled. Of these Artal:i, the gateway to Antioch, was particularly valuable.
Likewise, according to Anna Comnena, the Byzantine admiral Cantacuzenus seized
Latakia, though not the citadel, and al~Ullaiqah, al-Marqab, and Jabala to
the south. The Greek general Monastras occupied Tarsus, the adjacent port
of Longiniada (not now extant), and Adana and Mamistra, being welcomed by
the Armenian population.29 The Byzantines already held the island of Cyprus
with its naval bases off the Syrian coast, and from them were helping Bohemond's
enemy, Raymond of St. Gilles, establish himself around Tripoli to the south
of Antioch, as we shall see. 
 Bohemond's position was therefore rendered desperate by pressure on all
sides from the Byzantines and Aleppo. With many of his troops lost at Harran,
his home garrisons demoralized, Edessa weak, and now himself in debt for
his ransom of 1103 and unable to secure more men, Bohemond was at the end
of his resources. He might remain and face defeat or decay, or he might return
to Europe and embark upon a bold new venture. He chose the latter course.
He appointed Tancred his regent in the east, and sailed for Italy, arriving
in January 1105. 
 Bohemond's plan was nothing less than to make a frontal attack on the Byzantine
empire through Albania, as his father, Robert Guiscard, with Bohemond as
second-in-command, had done in io8i—io8~. Bohemond's experience convinced
him that he might succeed, particularly if he could channel the mounting
antiByzantine prejudices of the west into support of his venture. These prejudices
were born of the friction and misunderstanding engendered by the passage
of the hungry and ill-disciplined forces of the First Crusade through the
Byzantine empire, and by the disaster of the Crusade of 1101, which Alexius
was widely suspected of sabotaging. The wily Norman, therefore, decided to
promote a new "crusade", directed not against the Moslems but against the
Byzantines. Its real purpose was not to protect the Holy Sepulcher, but to
increase the power of Bohemond. To start a crusade he 


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