Baldwin, M. W. (ed.) / The first hundred years
V: The Turkish Invasion: The Selchukids, pp. -176
146 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES I The assistance which Tughrul as a last resort obtained from the Sons of Chagri-Beg saved him. The Turkoman revolt was stifled, Ibrãhim tnal strangled, Iraq retaken, al-BasãsIri hunted down and killed, and the caliph restored. All the Mesopotamian chieftains, especially the ' Uqailid of Mosul, now hurried to make their peace with the omnipotent victor. By 1059, and this time definitively, Tughrul-Beg was master of Mesopotamia as far as the Byzantine and Syrian frontiers. Obviously thereafter, in Iraq as elsewhere, it was Tughrul who exercised the real power, but not in exactly the way the Buwaihid had; and the caliph was the beneficiary of the change. He was indeed sometimes made to feel that his domains had been left to him as a favor and that his government was subject to the agreement of Tughrul, as when in io6o he tried to refuse his daughter's hand to the sultan. It was nevertheless noteworthy that he did have a civil government which, with the Turkish garrison, ruled Baghdad, and that he did hold domains commensurate with his rank. Above all, Tughrul, whether sincere or merely aware of the moral authority he derived from him, showed a real respect for the caliph. It was he who, as master, tried to avoid offense by not leaving too many Turks in Baghdad; he who, ill at ease amid the welter of Arab intrigues, preferred not to visit Baghdad often; and he who, above all, fought for the faith and for orthodoxy, and to whom for that reason the caliph gave his sincere support. The tjtle of sultan (Arabic, su4ãn) which the caliph conferred on him — long since a part of the current vocabulary, though Tughrul seems to have been the first to bear it officially — meant that he exercised all material power, on behalf of Islam in the service of the caliph, who was the supreme religious leader. It was a somewhat novel situation. The ninth-century caliphs had actually ruled; those of the tenth century were not even recognized as their religious superiors by the Buwaihids; and the principalities where they were so recognized, like the Samanids', were so distant that they were forgotten there. Now there was a true symbiosis which might suggest that which had existed in western Christendom between Charlemagne and the papacy.8 The two long reigns which followed that of Tughrul-Beg, those of Alp Arslan (1063—1072) and Malik- Shah (1072—1092), witnessed 8 W. Barthold, "Khalif' i sultan," Mir islama, I (5952), 34.5—400, in Russian (analyzed by C. H. Becker in Der islam, VI , 350-412); J. H. Kramers, "Les Noms musulmans composes avec Din," Acta Orientalia, V (1927), 53—67; A. H. Siddiqi, "Caliphate and Kingship in Medieval Persia," islamic Culture, IX (i~~), 56o—579; X (5936), 97—126, 260—279, 390—408; XI ~ 37—59.
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