Baldwin, M. W. (ed.) / The first hundred years
V: The Turkish Invasion: The Selchukids, pp. -176
142 A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES I Mas~üd. At last the Selchflkids dared to attack. In 1040 at the battle of Dandanqan in the province of Merv the Ghaznavid army was annihilated.6 Mas'ud fled to India. Khurasan was lost, and the Iranian plateau was wide open. The evolution of the Iranian and Turkish worlds had led the former to admit the Turks into its own~ bosom. Like that of the Germans in the Roman empire, the conquest by the Turks, from then on, was accomplished from inside. Among the simple yet powerful ideas which the Selchukid chieftains found in Iran was that of the scandal involved in the oppression of the caliph by the heretical Buwaihids. Already Malimüd aud Mas~üd had spoken of going to his relief, had begun the subjection of the Buwaihids of Iran, and had persecuted heretics. A "crusade" was in the air, and it can scarcely be doubted, from the course of ensuing events, that Tughrul-Beg promptly decided to profit from it. He immediately received the support of the orthodox notables of Khurasan, both for ideological reasons and for the sake of the profits they expected from exercising administrative control over the new conquests. For naturally it was through them that the Selchükids, whose Turkomans had had no administrative experience, would have to govern their territories. In certain respects the entry of the Turks into Baghdad would reproduce the earlier Khurasanian conquests of the ~Abbasids over the Umaiyads and of al-M&mün over al-AmIn. At the same time, the occupation of Khurasan allowed the Selchükids to add to their Turkoman bands an army of the traditional Moslem type, supplied with weapons suitable for taking cities, which the men of the desert had lacked. Moreover, this army diminished their dependence on their Turkomans. The latter remained, nevertheless, their basic force, which required almost no pay and alone assured their superiority over their adversaries. The main problem of the Turkomans was the locating of new pastures. In religion their attitude was that of the ghazi, which was not that of the orthodox against the heretic but rather that of the Moslem of every description against the unbeliever; and they remained opposed to any Selchflkid domination over them except the purely military. In some respects the two attitudes might in practice coincide. This may be seen in the division of tasks which Tughrui and Chagri agreed upon following Dandanqan. Chagri retained, in addition to most of Khurasan, the Selchükid homelands, to' be defended against the Kara-Khanids and the Ghaznavids. He accomplished 6 B. Zakhodar, "Dendanekan," Istoricheskii Zhurnal, III—IV (s~~), 74—78.
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