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Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The art and architecture of the crusader states
(1977)

VI: The Arts in Frankish Greece and Rhodes,   pp. 208-250 PDF (16.3 MB)


Page 209

Ch. VI FRANKISH GREECE 209 
the Frankish northern frontier, Boeotia, Attica, the Morea, and some of the
islands was there any lasting Frankish settlement. In Con stantinople, Latin
emperors ruled for some sixty years, but they left no buildings behind them
in the capital. The famous fortifications of the city received no addition,
hardly even upkeep, till Michael VIII Palaeologus rewon his capital. In the
surrounding country little can now be traced of the castles they erected
or rebuilt. Henry of Valenciennes tells us how the emperor, Henry of Flanders,
fortified Pamphilon near Adrianople in 1208, impressing workers and masons
wherever they could be found and ordering all his men to lend a hand in the
work.1 Such rough and ready methods suited the urgency of his campaigns;
they did not leave lasting results. 
Morea (Gennadeion Monographs, 4; Princeton, 1953) is a valuable contribution
to the subject, and see W. Muller-Wiener, Castles of the Crusaders, tr. J.
M. Brownjohn (London, 1966), pp. 82-85. 
 The Catalan castles have been studied from a historical rather than an archaeological
standpoint by A. Rubió i Lluch, "Els Castells catalans de la Grècia
continental," Anuari de l'Institut d'estudis catalans, [II] (1908), 364-425;
"Atenes en temps dels Catalans," ibid., [I] (1907), 225-254; "La Grècia
catalana des de la mort de Roger de Liuria fins a la de Frederic III de Sicilia
(1370-1377)," ibid., V-i (1913-1914), 393485; and "La Grecia catalana des
de la mort de Frederic III fins a Ia invasió navarresa (1377-1379),"
ibid., secció historico-arqueologica, VI (1915-1920), 127-199. See
also K. M. Setton, Catalan Domina tion of Athens, 1311-1388 (rev. ed., London,
1975). For general questions see J. Longnon, L ' Empire latin de Constantinople
et la principauté de Moree (Bibliothèque historique; Paris,
1949), and an important review of it by A. Bon in Journal des savants, 1951,
p. 33. For conditions preceding the crusading period see A. Bon, Le Pèloponnèse
byzantin jusqu en 1204 (Bibliothèque byzantine, Etudes, 1; Paris,
1951), and K. M. Setton, "The Archaeology of Medieval Athens," in Essays
in Medieval Life and Thought Presented in Honor ofAustin Patterson Evans
(New York, 1955), pp. 227-258, and, for the later period, idem, "Catalan
Society in Greece in the Fourteenth Century," in Essays in Memory of Basil
Laourdas (Thessalonica, 1975), pp. 24 1-284. 
 There are many references to the castles in the numerous accounts of travel
in Greece, but the authors were primarily interested in classical remains.
The most useful for the medieval period are V. M. Coronelli, Memorie istoriografiche
delli regni della Morea, e Negroponte e luoghi adiacenti (Venice, 1686),
tr. R. W. as An Historical and Geographical Account of the Morea, Negropont,
and the Maritime Places, as far as Thessalonica (London, 1687); O. Dapper,
Naukeurige, Beschryving van Morea, eertijts Peloponnesus: en de eilanden
onder de kusten van Morea, en binnen en buiten de golf van Venetien: waer
onder de voornaemste Korfu, Cefalonia, Sant Maura, Zanten, en andere en grooten
getale... (Amsterdam, 1688); F. C. H. L. Pouqueville, Voyage de la Grèce
(2nd ed., 6 vols., Paris, 1826); William Gell, Narrative of a Journey in
the Morea (London, 1823) and Itinerary of the Morea, being a Description
of the Routes of that Peninsula (London, 181 7); Edward Dodwell, A Classical
and Topographical Tour through Greece during the Years 1801, 1805, and 1806
(2 vols., London, 1819); W. M. Leake, Travels in Morea (3 vols., London,
1830), Travels in Northern Greece (4 vols., London, 1835), and Peloponnesiaca
(London, 1846); and E. Curtius, Peleponnesos: Eine historisch-geographische
Beschreibung der Halbinsel (2 vols., Gotha, 1851-1852). See also James M.
Paton, Chapters on Mediaeval and Renaissance Visitors to Greek Lands, ed.
L. A. P. (Gennadeion Monographs, 9; Princeton, 1951), and E. Forbes-Boyd,
In Crusader Greece: A Tour of the Castles of the Morea (New York, 1964).
1. Henry of Valenciennes, ed. and tr. N. de Wailly in Geoffrey of Villehardouin,


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