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Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The art and architecture of the crusader states
(1977)

IV: Military Architecture in the Crusader States in Palestine and Syria,   pp. 140-164 PDF (8.9 MB)


Page 163

Ch. IV MILITARY ARCHITECTURE 163 
erection (pl. LIVa). But with them the rebuilding ceased and the remaining
defense works are undistinguished. 
 From Antioch the Syrian Gates led through the Amanus range to the coastal
plain, the main route to Cilicia. On one of the approaches to the pass the
castle of Baghrãs, the Gaston of the crusaders, was held in turn by
the Templars, the Armenians, and the Moslems, and each occupation has left
its mark. Farther north a group of castles controlled the fertile eastern
Cilician plain, the center of the kingdom of Little Armenia. 36 These castles
are generally placed on rocky hills, and their walls follow the line of the
natural escarpment. Rounded towers, in small, bossed masonry, project from
the walls; and the bent entrance is generally employed, sometimes with a
complicated ramp. Byzantine and crusading methods mingle with local practice.
At the castle of Seleucia above the Calycadnus, the Hospitallers, after receiving
it from Leon II in 1210, used fine ashlar masonry and vaulting, which are
worthy of the standards of their contemporary building at Krak (pl. LIVb).
At the opposite eastern end of the kingdom, another Hospitaller holding at
Tall Uamdun (Toprakkale) has horseshoe towers rising as at Krak from a talus
faced with masonry. 
 The Armenian castles have not yet been fully studied. Some of them, such
as Ilan-kale, the castle of the serpents, have no documented history, though
Ilan-kale with its great flanking towers is still a most impressive ruin.
At Sis, the fortress protecting the Armenian capital sprawls unevenly along
a narrow ridge, and at places the natural rock provides the defense works,
or only a thin breastwork gives some additional cover. At Anazarba the castle
stands on a precipitous limestone crag rising from the plain. It includes
stretches of Byzantine wall, some Arab rebuilding after its 
 36. V. Langlois, Voyage dans la Cilicie et dans les montagnes du Taurus,
exécuté pendant les années 1852-1853. . . (Paris, 1861);
L. M. Alishan, Sissouan, ou l'Arméno-Cilicie: 
Description géographique et historique avec carte et illustrations
(Venice, 1899); Fedden and Thomson, Crusader Castles (1957); J. Gottwald,
articles in Byzantinische Zeitschrift: 
"Die Kirche und das Schloss Paperon in Kilikisch-Armenien," XXXVI (1936),
86-100; "Die Burg Ti! im süddstlichen Kilikien," XL (1940), 89-104;
and "Burgen und Kirchen im mitt!eren Kilikien," XLI (1941), 82-103; P. Deschamps,
"Le Château de Servantikar en 
Cilicie: Le Ddfilé de Marris et la frontière du comtd d'Edesse,"
Syria, XVIII (1937), 379-388; E. H. King, "A Journey through Armenian Cilicia,"
Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society, XXIV (1937), 234-246; M. Gough,
"Anazarbus," Anatolian Studies, II (1952), 119-125; J. G. Dunbar and W. W.
M. Boa!, "The Castle of Vagha," Anatolian Studies, XIV (1964), 175-184; E.
Herzfe!d and S. Guyer,MonumentaAsiaeMinorisantiqua; vol. II, Meriamlik und
Korykos: Zwei christliche Ruinenstätten des rauhen Kilikiens (Manchester,
1930); and G. R. Youngs, "Three Cilician Castles," Anatolian Studies, XV
(1965), 113-134. 


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