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United States. Office of Indian Affairs / Annual report of the commissioner of Indian affairs, for the year 1863

Oregon superintendency,   pp. 48-88 PDF (17.2 MB)

Page 49

* This has imposed upon the agents and upon myself much additional labor,
and the assistance of the military has in some instances been required; but
effort had been so far successful, that over five hundred Indians have been-re-
covered from Willamette valley alone; and, indeed, I am not aware that any
now left in that part of the country. A large number, probably two hundred
or three hundred, are scattered along the coast, from the mouth of the Umpqua
river to the California line, but I hope to be able to report them all upon
reservation before next winter. 
Complaints were also made by citizens of Umpqua valley, of a band of In-
dians with whom no treaty had been made, inhabiting the mountains on the
head of the north Umpqua river, and frequently annoying the white settlers
the eastern part of the Umpqua valley. Taking an interpreter with me, I left
this place on the first of August last, and proceeded to that part of the
for the purpose of inducing them to go to one of the reservations. A part
of the 
Indians fled to the mountains upon hearing of my approach, but about thirty-five
of them remained until I came up. These complained that the government had
made no treaty with them, had given them no presents, and they utterly refused
to leave their old haunts. Obtaining some assistance, I attempted to compel
them to go, but they escaped, on the night of August 13, to the mountains,
I was unable to hold any further communication with them. It will be impos-
sible to do anything further with them until the snows of winter drive them
of the mountains, and then not without military assistance. There are about
sixty of them altogether, and these are the only ones between the Cascade
mountains and the coast who are not under the control of the department.
East of the Cascade mountains, the various bands of Snakes, comprising the
Klamaths, Modocs, Shoshonees, Bannocks, Winnas, and probably other tribes,
whose numbers may be estimated from four thousand to five thousand, occupy
the vast region, only partially explored, lying south of the lands purchased
the Nez Perces, Cayuses, Walla-Wallas, Umatillas, and confederated tribes
bands of Middle Oregon. 
All of these, except a portion of the Klamaths and Modocs, are, and have
been for a long period, in a state of actual hostility towards the whites.
has recently been discovered in various parts of this country, and the miners
who have gone there in quest of it dre constantly subjected to their depredations.
For further and more detailed information in regard to them, I refer you
to the 
report of late Superintendent E. R. Geary for 1860; the reports of my immediate
predecessor, W. H. Rector, for 1861 and 1862, and the report of Agent Kirk-
patrick for 1862. I regard it of the utmost importance that treaties be made
with these bands, and I recommend that the sum of twenty thousand dollars
($20,000) be placed at the disposal of commissioners to be appointed for
purpose. There are no Indians other than those above enumerated within the
limits of this superintendency, who are not under the control of the Indian
partinent, and located at the various agencies. 
This agency is located on the reservation set apart for the Walla-Walla,
Cayuse, and Umatilla tribes, numbering nine hundred and sixteen souls, which
embraces a large tract of fertile land, well watered, tolerably well supplied
timber, and situated in a mild and genial climate. It has also the advantage
proximity to the new gold fields of Oregon and Idaho, and consequently will
enjoy for many years to come a remunerative market for all the surplus produce
which can be raised. With proper energy and good management, there is no
reason why this agency may not in a few years become self-supporting. The
Indians located here are both intellectually and physically superior to the
west of the Cascade mountains, and if they are in some respects less advanced

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