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United States. Office of Indian Affairs / Annual report of the commissioner of Indian affairs, for the year 1863
([1863])

Report of the commissioner of Indian affairs,   pp. [5]-40 PDF (14.2 MB)


Page 25

COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS.                     25 
Mississippi in point of wealth. They held large numbers of slaves, and many-'
of them owned droves of cattle numbered by thousands. Their country is con-
sidered one of the finest agricultural and grazing regions within our borders,
and has proven to the rebels a source of immense supplies for their armies.
Since my last annual report their old chief, O-poth-la-ya-ho-la, has deceased.
During the last half century the influence of this chief has been second
to no 
other among the southern tribes. He was ever the firm and unwavering friend
of the whites, and to his influence, as much as that of any other man, is
due 
the fact that so great a proportion of his people have never hesitated in
their 
loyalty. 
believing that the treaty recently negotiated with the Creeks is just in
itsK 
provisions, and embodies a policy which, so far as practicable, should be
adopted-t 
by the United States .in readjusting its relations with the tribes of this
superin- 
tendency, I bespeak for it a careful consideration. Its main features are
as 
follows: 
First. Perpetual peace between the contracting parties, and between the 
Creeks and other Indians, the United States stipulating that all necessary
pro- 
tection shall be furnished to secure the Creeks from hostilities on the part
of 
other Indians. 
Second. The "necessity, justice, and humanity" of the emancipation
procla- 
mation of January 1, 1863, is expressly recognized, and the Creeks solemnly
covenant that henceforth slavery in their midst shall cease, and agree to
set 
apart a suitable portion of their country for the occupation of the freed
men, and 
all others of the African race who shall be permitted to settle among them.
Third. A cession of about seven hundred square miles of their territory for
the use and occupation of such other tribes now resident in the States and
Territories as may hereafter be agreed upon, for which~the United States
agree 
to pay them five per cent. per annum on the sum of two hundred thousand 
dollars in money, or such mechanical or other useful articles as may be deter-
mined upon by the Secretary of the Interior, and to guarantee them the quiet
possession of the remainder of their country. 
Fourth. A provision for an equitable compensation of the loyal, and none
other, for such losses of property (other than slaves) as they have sustained
in 
consequence of the rebellion, and our failure to comply with former treaty
stip- 
ulations. 
Fifth. The utter exclusion of all persons who have engaged in this rebellion
from all offices of profit and trust in the nation. 
The Chickasaws and Choctaws, until recently, have been supposed to be 
almost unanimously in favor of the rebellion, only about three hundred of
the 
latter having come within our lines. These are now upon the Sac and Fox 
reservation, under charge of Agent Coleman. With them, as with all the other
refugees, the change from the comfortable houses, the abundant supply of
fruits, 
vegetables, fresh meats, and, indeed, all other necessaries of life which
they 
enjoyed in thejr own country, to their present mode of life, has been productive
2I 


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