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United States. Office of Indian Affairs / Annual report of the commissioner of Indian affairs, for the year 1905
Part I ([1905])

Reports concerning Indians in California,   pp. 180-195 PDF (7.8 MB)

Page 193

Tho school plant is very poor; the buildings are old and can not be used
school purposes much longer. I shall repair and paint them and do what 
I can to make them habitable during the coming year. 
Torres Reservation.-The Torres Reservation comprises 19,200 acres of desert
land, concerning which a full description was given in my report for 1904.
Suffice it to say now that upon this reservation, which runs for 15 miles
wise, parallel with the Southern Pacific Railroad, and is 4 miles from the
way, there are several communities of Indians assembled in villages near
artesian wells sunk for them by the Government. These places are known as
Torres (" hot," and rightly named), Alimo Bonito (beautiful cottonwood),
Agua Dulce (sweet water), and Martinez. 
At Martinez there is a day school, successfully conducted by Mr. James B.
Royce, with his wife, Bonnie V. Royce, as housekeeper. The building is 
poorly adapted to school purposes, and I am pleased to say that I have been
instructed by your office to make estimates and plans for an entire new plant,
which I hope we will be successful in installing before the end of the winter
Twenty-nine Palms.-This worthless reservation contains 160 acres of land.
It has been temporarily abandoned by the Indians, who formerly lived there
considerable numbers. They have taken up their abode with the Cabazon 
Indians on their reservation, near the town of Coachella, on the Southern
Railroad. Cabazon Reservation contains good soil, but very little (an be
with the present irrigating facilities. There are but two artesian wells,
located that only a small portion of the land can be supplied with water.
water is wholly inadequate. The Twenty-nine Palms and Cabazon Indians 
together furnish enough pupils for a day school, and I shall, at an early
ask your permission to establish one at that point. 
In addition to the above-described reservations several sections of land
years ago set aside for Indian purposes. Only in two or three instances are
these tracts occupied by Indians, and then only by individual families. 
By condensing the above information relative to day schools of this agency,
the following table is formulated: 
Average Average 
School.          Teacher.            Housekeeper.      enroll- attend- 
ment.   ance. 
Soboba ......  W ill H. Stanley     May Stanley  ............... . 20  17
Tule River  ....--  Frank A. Virtue  -  Minnie I. Virtue-------------- -
 30  15 
Potrero -------- Sarah  E. Gilman --------- Victoria Miguel  ......... .
21  13 
Martinez -------- Jas. B. Royce ------------ Bonnie V. Royce 2-----------
23  19 
Cahuilla --------- Mabel Egeler -----------Alma Spence ------------------
14  9 
Compensation at all schools: Teacher, $72 per month; housekeeper, $30 per
General conditions.-It is but fair to state that the Indians under my charge
are doing very well under the circumstances. If it is the Government's definite
policy to locate each Indian with his family upon a piece of land where he
be proprietor of his home and thus make him independent and self-supporting,
additional farming lands, will have to be secured. 
After following the descriptions of the several reservations it becomes 
apparent that only a small portion of the land is fit for cultivation, because
of the fact that the Indian lands largely consist of dry hills and mountains,
and the level portions lack sufficient water for irrigation, which is indispensable.
The Mission Indians obtain at least 75 per cent of their own and their 
families' maintenance by working for white people in civilized pursuits.
This, of course, is commendable, but when they are incapacitated for labor,
through sickness or for any other reason, they immediately become dependent
paupers because they have no other resources than their labor. There are,
however, a few who are thrifty and lay aside something for the future. But
the majority have not learned the lesson that it is not what they earn but
what they save that prepares them for the pinching time of winter and 
Rations have been furnished only to indigent Indians-those who are posi-
tively unable to support themselves because of old age, sickness, or some
A variety of tools, wagonis, implements, and wire have been issued to deserv-
ing and industrious Indians during the past year, and this has been a great
aid to them in putting in and harvesting their little crops. 
IND 1905---13 

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