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Wolff, R. L.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The later Crusades, 1189-1311
(1969)

Important Dates and Events,   pp. 759-762 PDF (1.7 MB)


Page 761

 IMPORTANT DATES AND EVENTS 761 
 1229 April 12 Peace of Paris ends Albigensian Crusade 
 1229 May 1 Frederick II sails from Acre to save Apulia from John of Brienne
 1229 (about) Geoffrey I of Achaea dies; son Geoffrey II succeeds 
 1230 April John Asen of Bulgaria defeats Theodore of Epirus at Klokotnitsa
 1231 August 15 Jalal-ad-Din, last Khorezm-Shah, is slain fleeing from Mongols
 1231 September Baldwin II marries Mary of Brienne; her father John is co-emperor
 1232 April Commune of Acre supports John of Ibelin against imperialists
 1232 May 3 Imperialist forces defeat Cypriotes at Casal Imbert in Palestine
 1232 June 15 Cypriotes defeat imperialists at Agridi in Cyprus 
 1233 winter Bohemond IV of Antioch and Tripoli dies; son Bohemond V succeeds
 1233 early April Surrender of Kyrenia ends imperialist threat to Cyprus
 1236  John of Ibelin, bailie of Cyprus and mayor of Acre, dies 
 1237 March 23 John of Brienne dies, leaving Baldwin II as sole Latin emperor
 1238 March Death of al-Kämil touches off struggle among Aiyubid princes
 1239 March zo Frederick II is again excommunicated by Gregory IX 
 1239 September 1 Crusaders under Theobald IV of Champagne arrive at Acre
 1239 November 13 Crusading barons are defeated near Gaza by AiyUbid army
 1239 December 7 Jerusalem surrenders to AiyUbids, who dismantle fortifications
 1240 early Gregory IX preaches a "crusade" against Frederick II 
 1240 summer Theobald IV concludes favorable treaty with Aiyub of Egypt 
 1241 April 13 Richard of Cornwall confirms treaty; Aiyub returns Gaza prisoners
 1241 June John Asen of Bulgaria dies; son Coloman I succeeds 
 1241 August 22 Gregory IX dies; Celestine IV becomes pope (October 25) 
 1241 November 10 Celestine IV dies; 19-month papal interregnum ensues 
 1243 April 25 Conrad comes of age, ending Frederick II's claim on Jerusalem
 1243 June 25 Innocent IV becomes pope, ending interregnum 
 1243 July 2 Mongols defeat Selchukids at Köse Dagh, make them vassals
 1243 July 10 Fall of Tyre ends imperialist power in Syria 
 1244 August 23 Jerusalem is sacked by Khorezmians (never regained by Franks)
 1 244 October 1 Egyptians and Khorezmians shatter Frankish-Syrian forces
near Gaza 
 1245 June 28 Council of Lyons considers Latin empire, "deposes" Frederick
II 
 1246  Coloman I dies; most of Balkans fall to Nicaean empire 
 1246 summer Geoffrey II of Achaea dies; brother William II succeeds 
 1248 August 25 Louis IX sails to Cyprus, winters there preparing crusade
 1249 June 5 French crusaders land in Egypt, capture Damietta next day 
 1250 April 6 Louis IX and crusaders surrender to Egyptians 
 1250 May 2 Mamluks kill Aiyubid Turan-Shah; widow Shajar-ad-Durr rules 
 1250 May 6 Crusaders surrender Damietta, ransom Louis IX and other leaders
 1250 July 30 Shajar-ad-Durr marries Aybeg, first Mamluk sultan of Egypt
 1250 December 13 Frederick II dies; son Conrad IV (king of Jerusalem) succeeds
 1252 January Bohemond V of Antioch and Tripoli dies; son Bohemond VI succeeds
 1253 January 18 Henry I of Cyprus dies, leaving infant son Hugh II under
regency 
 1254 April 24 Louis IX sails for France after strengthening Palestine 
 1254 May 21 Conrad IV dies, leaving infant son Conradin as heir 
 1254 November John Ducas Vatatzes dies; son Theodore II Lascaris succeeds
 1254 December 7 Innocent IV dies; Alexander IV becomes pope (December 12)
 1255  Civil war splits Frankish Greece 
 1256 December 20 Mongols under Hulagu take Alamut, end Assassins' sway in
Persia 
 1257 April 11 Aybeg is murdered; son ' Ali becomes nominal Mamluk sultan
 1258 February Mongols under Hulagu sack Baghdad, kill last ' Abbasid caliph
 1258 August Theodore II dies; Michael VIII Palaeologus seizes Nicaean throne
 1259 summer Michael VIII defeats Franks at Pelagonia, captures leaders 
 1259 November 12 Kutuz deposes ' Ali and becomes Mamluk sultan 
 1260 January 24 Mongols devastate Aleppo; Hulagu withdraws to Iran 
 1260 March x Mongols under Kitbogha take Damascus 
 1260 September 3 Mamluk army under Baybars routs Mongols at 'Ain Jalut 
 1260 October 23 Baybars kills sultan Kutuz, seizes Mamluk throne 
 1261 May 25 Alexander IV dies; Urban IV becomes pope (August 29) 
 1261 July 25 Greeks reconquer Constantinople; Latin empire ends 
 1261 August 15 Michael VIII Palaeologus is crowned emperor in Constantinople
 1264 October 2 Urban IV dies; Clement IV becomes pope (February 5, 1265)


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