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Zacour, N. P.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The impact of the Crusades on Europe
(1989)

VII: The Ottoman Turks and the Crusades, 1329-1451,   pp. 222-275 PDF (24.1 MB)


Page 259

 Ch. VII THE OTTOMAN TURKS AND THE CRUSADES, 1329-1451 259 
 Mircea had died in 1418 and his sons Michael and then Dan II recognized
Hungarian suzerainty in Wallachia. The situation apparently caused great
concern in Murad's court, and the sultan ordered frontier forces to support
Radu II ("the Simple", or "the Bald"), another son of Mircea, against his
brother, culminating in the invasion of Wallachia in 1423.106 Hungarians
and Ottomans fought on the Danube as supporters of their respective candidates
for the Wallachian throne. Following his attempt at an agreement in 1424,
the sultan, now freed of his Anatolian enemies, organized a large-scale campaign
against Wallachia and Hungary under the beglerbeg of Rumelia with the participation
of all the frontier lords. At the head of his army, Sigismund himself encountered
the Ottoman army at Golubats and Orshova, and blocked their way.'°7 The
Venetians in Thessalonica received with joy the news of the Ottoman failure
on the Danube.'°8 
 Upon the termination of the truce in 1426, the Ottoman-Hungarian rivalry
over Wallachia and Serbia escalated. First the Ottomans drove Dan away from
Wallachia early in 1427, and Sigismund had to come to reinstate him on the
Wallachian throne in the spring. His forces then retook Giurgiu and crossed
the Danube. There Sigismund built the fortress Szentgyorgy, and settled German
forces as a barrier against the Ottomans. At this point, the death of the
Serbian despot Stephen Lazarevich on July 19, 1427, and the dispute over
his heritage brought the rivalry of the two powers on the Danube to a point
of crisis. Stephen had arranged his succession in favor of George Brankovich,
lord of upper Serbia, under Hungarian protection; Brankovich would be a vassal
of the Hungarian king, by an agreement signed in May 1426.109 According to
the agreement upon the death of Stephen, Hungary would inherit Belgrade,
Golubats, and the banat of Machva on the west side of the Danube. Even before
the death of Stephen in 1427, the Ottomans had reacted against this arrangement
and, by invading George's lands, had forced him to recognize Ottoman suzerainty,
to cede the area between Krushevats and Kossovo, to wed his daughter Mara
to 
 106. Anonymous, TevârIkh-i Al-i ' Othmdn (Paris, Bibi. nat., MS. suppi.
turc, 1047), P. 38, tells us that following the execution of his brother
Mustafa (early 1423) Murad II ordered a massive attack against Wallachia,
and that he then made peace with "Drakula" on condition of the payment of
a tribute; according to lorga, Geschichte, I, 390, Ottoman forces advanced
as far as Kronstadt (Brashov). 
 107. Sigismund was at Orshova on August 16, 1425; lorga, Geschichte, I,
391. The anonymous TevârIkh claims an Ottoman surprise attack and victory
at Golubats against the king's forces in 828/1425. 
 108. lorga, Geschichte, I, 391. 
 109. Jire~ek, Geschichte der Serben, II, 159; Ignaz A. Fessler, Geschichte
von Ungarn, ed. Ernst Klein, II (Leipzig, 1869), 372—373. 


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