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Wolff, R. L.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The later Crusades, 1189-1311
(1969)

XIV: The Crusades of Louis IX,   pp. 486-518 PDF (12.7 MB)


Page 487

XIV 
THE CRUSADES OF 
LOUIS IX 
 he crusades of Louis IX mark both the culmination and the beginning of the
end of the crusading movement. None of the earlier expeditions was as well
organized or financed, none had a more inspiring leader, none had a better
chance of success. The crusade of 1249 was the last whole-hearted effort
of Christendom against the infidel — it was watched with friendly interest
even 
 The two chief narrative sources for the first crusade of Louis IX are John
of Joinville's Vie de St. Louis (many editions, the most valuable being that
of Natalis de Wailly, Paris, 1874) and the continuation of William of Tyre
known as the Rothelin manuscript (published in RHC, 0cc., II, 483—639).
Louis himself gave a good brief account of his adventures in Egypt in a letter
printed in Duchesne, Historiae Francorum scrzptores (Paris, 1649), V, 428—432.
The French chroniclers and writers of pious lives (William of Nangis, Geoffrey
of Beaulieu, et al.) appear in RHGF, XX, XXII, and XXIII; they contribute
little additional information. Matthew Paris gives a tendentious account
of the crusade but includes valuable 
documents in the Additamenta (vol. VI of the Rolls Series edition). Most
of the fragmentary financial records of the crusade are collected in RHGF,
XXI, 264—280, 283, 404, 513—515, 530—537. The Layettes
du trésor des chartes, II and III, contain scattered material on financial
aspects of the crusade, but there is less than might have been expected from
these royal archives. L. T. Beigrano's Documenti inediti riguardanti le due
crociate di S. Ludovico (Genoa, 1859) is difficult both to find and to use;
fortunately his valuable material on Louis's financial arrange— ments
with the Genoese was summarized by A. Schaube, "Die Wechselbriefe Konig Ludwigs
des Heiligen," Jahrbucher für Nationalokonomie und Statistik, LXX ([3rd
series, XV], 1898), 603—621, 730—748. Contracts for ships were
published by Belgrano (op. cit., and in Archives de I'orient latin, II [1884],
230—236) and by Jal (Pacta naulorum, Collection de documents inedits:
Documents historiques, I, Paris, 1841). R. Röhricht's Kleine Studien
zur Geschichte der Kreuzzuge (Wissenschaftliche Beilage zum Programm des
Humboldts-Gymnasiums zu Berlin, Easter, 1890) include accounts of Louis's
two crusades "in Regestenform" which include valuable bibliographical references.
No secondary work has treated adequately all aspects of the crusade; the
most readable accounts are in H. Wallon, Saint—Louis et son temps,
I (Paris, 1875), and R. Grousset, Histoire des croisades, III (Paris, 1936),
426—531. 
 For the Tunisian expedition, the primary narrative source is the chronicle
of Primat, published in RHGF, XXIII. The other chronicles give briefer accounts;
all are published in RHGF, XX, XXII, or XXIII. Information about finance
and shipping may be found in books listed above. Most modern writers have
passed over this crusade very rapidly; the one full account is by Richard
Sternfeld, Ludwigs des heiligen Kreuzzug nach Tunis, 1270, und die Politik
Karls I. von Sizilien (Berlin, 1896). Sternfeld's attempt to minimize the
respon sibility of Charles of Anjou is not wholly convincing, but he gives
valuable material on papal and Angevin diplomacy, and his summary of the
events of the crusade is good. The old Vie de Saint Louis by Le Nain de Tillemont
(vol. V, ed. J. de Gaulle, Paris, 1849) gives an account of the crusade which
is still useful. R. Rohricht sums up all available information about the
crusade of Edward I in his "Etudes sur les derniers temps du royaume de Jerusalem,"
Archives del'orient latin, I (1881), 617—632. 
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