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United States. Office of Indian Affairs / Annual report of the commissioner of Indian affairs, for the year 1883
([1883])

Reports of agents in California,   pp. 10-20 PDF (5.4 MB)


Page 10

10             REPORTS OF AGENTS IN         CALIFORNIA. 
miles from the agency. 3d. The San Carlos, who halt between two opinions,
race 
prejudice and the memory of former glory inclining them to continue fraternal
rela- 
tions with the mountain tribes, while the Government bounty they have learned
to 
enjoy is a temptation to remain at peace they are fast losing the power to
resist. 
4th. The Tontos who, having been greatly reduced in numbers by war with the
whites a few years ago, are so broken in spirit as to be easily held in subjection
and 
may be relied upon for efficient service against hostile tribes. 5th. The
Mojaves and 
Yumas, two tribes that have for many years been living on reservations and
yet can 
claim no superiority as workers over any of the other tribes, except the
Chiricahuas, 
have lost courage and self-reliance and fallen to the lowest estate of dependence.
Such are the facts; the moral I shall not attempt to point. 
The arrangement entered into between the Secretary of War and the Secretary
of 
the Interior, whereby all police authority was conferred on General Crook,
has been 
carried into effect, and that duty is now entirely in the bands of Captain
Crawford, 
who has been designated to execute it. Its success will depend entirely on
the judg- 
ment and discretion of the officer in charge. The plan is open to serious
objections, 
and will lead to many difficulties in case the cordial co-operation that
has heretofore 
been maintained between the military and civil authorities should be interrupted.
I am willing to yield much, that success may attend the efforts of General
Crook to 
lure the hostile Chiricahuas from their safe retreat in the mountains of
Mexico, and 
will do all in my power to aid him in keeping the peace on the reservation;
but when 
the causes that led to this extremely liberal concession shall have passed
away, I am. 
of the opinion that the powers and duties conferred on Indian agents, by
law, should 
be resumed by the agent at San Carlos, or the full management of the agency
should 
be placed under the control of the War Department. Indians can no more serve
two 
masters than can the white man, and of the two who attempt to stand in that
rela- 
tion to them, one will be despised. 
I must not close my report without giving credit for the manner in which
the cows 
purchased at this agency last May have been cared for. The Indians to whom
they 
were issued evince a laudable pride of owrnership, and I am hopeful that,
in the case 
of cattle, they will, in a few years, become efficient managers. The number
should 
be largely increased as soon as money can be provided for that purpose. 
P. P. WILCOX, 
United States Indian Agent. 
The COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 
IOOPA VALLEY AGENCY, CALIFORNIA, 
August 1, 1883. 
SIR: In compliance with your letter of instructions of the 13th ultimo, I
have the 
honor to submit the following annual report of this agency, of which I took
charge 
August 1, 18S62, relieving First Lieut. Gordon Winslow, United States Army,
who had 
been ordered to another military station. 
Considering the length of time this reservation has been establisbed, the
energy, 
liberality, and industry with which it has been managed, and considering
the benev- 
olence, care, and attention which have been extended towards these Hoopa
Indians, 
their present condition appears far from satisfactory. Even before the reservation
was established they had reached a certain grade in civilization fully as
far advanced 
as their position of to-day. Many of them are still indolent, immoral, and
unsteady, 
feeble in their domestic and family attachments, untruthful, and extremely
super- 
stitious. Their present condition is one of self-complacent lethargy and
moral and 
mental stagnation. They evince no desire to acquire knowledge, lo learn useful
trades, to gain possession of and cultivate lands of their own, or to better
their condi- 
tion in any respect, when the doing so necessitates exertion, application,
or self-denial. 
Plodding industry, constant application, and steady work are their especial
abhor- 
rences. Only the pressure of some actual necessity or of some extra inducements
will induce them to work. Even when hired by citizens for good wages they
work 
merely long enough to "raise a stake," -hich is almost invariably
wasted in idleness, 
frivolity, and dissipation. 
Their natural indolence seems to have been fostered and intensified by the
system 
of distributing annuity goods and flour. Like all charities indiscriminately
distrib- 
uted according to the apparent wants of the individual and without regard
to his 
conduct or merits, those given to these Hoopa Indians seem to have had a
most de- 
moralizing effect and influence. As long as a hungry or destitute Indian
felt reason- 
ably certain that on representing his necessities he would receive from the
Govern- 
ment sufficient aid and assistance to tide over his immediate wants, just
so long would 
he neglect all etlbrts to make provision for himself and his family. Their
reliance upon 
the Government supplying their pressing wants during the winter season has
been 


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