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Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries
(1975)

XVI: The German Crusade on the Baltic,   pp. 545-585 PDF (16.2 MB)


Page 545

XVI 
THE GERMAN CRUSADE 
ON THE BALTIC 
 By the German crusade on the Baltic is meant the medieval expansion beyond
the Elbe-Saale frontier to the shores of Lake Peipus. It is not historically
possible to separate crusades from expansion and colonization in this area.
It would not make sense, for example, to consider the Crusade of 1147 against
the Wends without reviewing the history of the Slavic trans-Elbean lands
since the days of Otto the Great, nor to separate the crusades of bishop
Albert from the expansion of the German aristocracy and bourgeoisie into
Livo nia. It would likewise lead to a faulty understanding of the history
of the Teutonic Knights in Prussia if an attempt were made to separate crusades
against the Prussians from colonization and settlement. The campaigns to
subject the Slays and other Baltic peoples coincided with the campaigns to
convert them. To some princes it made little difference whether they became
converts so long as they became subjects; to some churchmen the reverse was
true, but ordinarily it was realized that both went together. There could
be no subjection without conversion, no conversion without subjection, and
no per manence in either without German settlement. 
 An introductory bibliography on the history of the Teutonic Order is Rudolf
ten Haaf, Kurze Bibliographie zur Geschichte des Deutschen Ordens, 1198—1561
(Kitzingen am Main, 1949). The chronicles of Helmold of Bosau, Arnold of
Lübeck, and Henry of Livonia will be found in MGH, SS., XXI, pp. 1—99
(Helmold); XXI, pp. 100—250 (Arnold); and XXIII, pp. 231—332
(Henry). The narrative sources for early Livonian and Prussian history will
be found in Scriptores rerum livonicarum, vols. I and II (Riga, 1848, 1853),
and Scriptores rerum prussicarum, vols. I—V (Leipzig, 1861—1874).
The documents of the archives of the Teutonic Order formerly at Königsberg
and now at Goslar have been listed and described, with (if published) place
of imprint indicated, by Erich Joachim and Waither Hubatsch, Regesta historico-diplomatica
Ordinis S. Mariae Theutonicorum, 1198—1525 (Gottingen, 1948). The author
has incorporated into the text extensive quotations from Helmold's Chronicle
of the Slays and Henry of Livonia's Chronicle. The translator of the former
is F. J. Tschan, The Chronicle of the Slavs by Helmold, Priest of Bosau (Columbia
Records of Civilization, no. 31; New York, 1935), and of the latter, James
Brundage, The Chronicle of 
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