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Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries
(1975)

XII: The Spanish and Portuguese Reconquest, 1095-1492,   pp. 396-456 PDF (25.3 MB)


Page 396

 396XII 
THE SPANISH 
AND PORTUGUESE 
RECONCONQUEST, 1095—1492 
 hen pope Urban II in 1095 proclaimed the crusade for the recovery of the
Holy Land, the struggle against Islam in the Iberian peninsula was already
almost four centuries old, and yet another four would pass before, in the
year of the discovery of America, the "Catholic Kings" at Granada could raise
the cross and the banner of Castile over the highest tower of the Alhambra,
ending forever an Islamic dominion that dated from the Visigothic catastrophe
of 
711—714. In this eight-hundred-year chronicle of Christian-Moslem confrontation
and cultural interpenetration, the Council of Clermont (which several Spanish
bishops attended) represents no merely fortui tous midpoint, for the last
years of the eleventh century witnessed a profound transformation in the
nature, tempo, and course of the 
 Basic sources and secondary works relating to each stage of the reconquest
(1095—1492) are cited below at appropriate points of the text. Down
to 1250 the chief Latin general chronicles are those of Rodrigo of Toledo
(Rodrigo Ximénes de Rada), Historia gothica (ed. A. Schott, Hispaniae
illustratae, 4 vols., Frankfurt, 1603—1608, II, 25—194); Lucas
of Tuy, Chronicon mundi (ibid., IV, 1—116); and Alfonso X, Estoria
de Espafla (ed. R. Menéndez Pidal, Primera crdnica general, 2 vols.,
Madrid, 1906). Other narratives are collected in Las CrOnicas latinas de
la Reconquista (ed. A. Huici Miranda, 2 vols., Valencia, 1913). On the Portuguese
side, see the sole Scriptores volume of Portugaliae monumenta historica (Lisbon,
1956); Cronicas dos sete primeiros reis de Portugal (ed. C. da Silva Tarouca,
3 vols., Lisbon, 1952); and Fontes medievais da histdria de Portugal (ed.
A. Pimenta, Lisbon, 1948). For papal correspondence, see P. Kehr, Papsturkunden
in Spanien: I. Catalanien (Abhandlungen der Akademie der Wissenschaften in
Gottingen, philolog.-hist. Klasse, XVIII, 2, 1926), II. Navarra und Aragon
(ibid., XXII, 1928); and C. Erdmann, Papsturkunden in Portugal (ibid., XX,
1927). 
 For general primary narratives of Moslem authorship relating to post-1095
Iberia, the only collection is ColecciOn de crc$nicas drabes de la Reconquista
(ed. A. Huici, 4 vols, Tetuán, 1952—1955), which includes Ibn-'Idhari
al-Marrãkushi, Kitãb al-bayãn al-mughrib (vols. II-III);
and the anonymous Al-hulal al-maushiyah (vol. I). See also Ibn-abi-Zar' al-Fasi,
Raud al-qirtas (Fr. tr. A. Beaumier, Paris, 1860; Sp. tr. A. Huici, Valencia,
1918); Ahmad ibn-Muhammad al-Makkari, Kitab nafh at-tib (tr. P. de Gayangos,
The History of the 


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