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Zacour, N. P.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The impact of the Crusades on Europe

X: Crusader Coinage with Greek or Latin Inscriptions,   pp. 354-387 PDF (12.7 MB)

Page 354

 hroughout the crusades the great eastward movement of armies and pilgrims
was accompanied by a heavy and persistent flow of money. This we can judge
from the ill-recorded evidence of hoards deposited in the area of the crusading
states, and, more generally, from the profound economic and monetary changes
in both western Europe and the Levant, of which the crusades were the apparent
cause. Each of the crusader states in Syria and Palestine issued in due course
its own currency — three of the four on a substantial scale —
and other minor and more ephemeral currencies were issued by Frankish authorities
in the area from time to time. The direct monetary consequences of the crusades,
therefore, were not negligible. 
 On the other hand, the princes who led the First Crusade came from lands
in which money did not yet play a major economic role, a fact reflected in
contemporary assessments of the importance of things. Financial matters do
not therefore figure largely in the accounts of the 
 The principal work on the coinage of the crusades is Gustave Schlumberger,
Numismatique de l'Orient latin (Paris, 1878-1882; repr. Graz, 1954). This
was founded upon and superseded the pioneering work of F. de Saulcy, Numismatique
des croisades (Paris, 1847). Schiumberger's work is one of the great classics
of nineteenth-century numismatic scholarship, and it is still the indispensable
handbook for the study of the coins of the crusades, but two factors have
made it out of date. The progress of research in Byzantine and related numismatics,
particularly in the later period, has resulted in the removal to the Byzantine
sphere of several coins which Schlumberger attributed to the Franks; and
the discovery in recent years of much new material (the result of growing
world-wide interest and trade in coins) has made coins abundant which Schlumberger
thought rare and has produced some altogether new ones. 
 Schlumberger's book covered the whole of the Latin east. If this chapter
were to cover the monetary background of every Christian state to which attention
has been given in the volumes of A History of the Crusades, it would have
had to go even further to treat the coinages, for example, of the emerging
Spanish kingdoms or of the Teutonic Knights in the Baltic. Even to have covered
the coins of the Latin east in the generally accepted sense, including Lusignan
Cyprus, the knights of the Hospital at Rhodes, the Genoese in Chios and Lesbos

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