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Zacour, N. P.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The impact of the Crusades on Europe
(1989)

VIII: The Crusade of Varna,   pp. 276-310 PDF (14.1 MB)


Page 276

 276VIII 
THE CRUSADE OF VARNA 
 he defeat of the crusaders under king Sigismund at Nicopolis on September
25, 1396, ended, for almost half a century, any concerted military opposition
to Ottoman expansion in the Balkans. The European provinces that had been
overrun by the Turks remained tributary 
 The letters of Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini, a secretary to Frederick III
in Vienna, were edited by Rudolf Wolkan, Der Briefwechsel des Eneas Silvius
Piccolomini (Fontes rerum austriacarum, Abteilung II, vols. LXI, LXII, LXVII,
and LXVIII; Vienna, 1909-1918). His writings, Opera quae extant omnia, were
published in Basel, 1551 (repr. Frankfurt am Main, 1967). The Commentaries
were translated into English by Florence A. Gragg and Leona C. Gabel (Smith
College Studies in History, vols. XXII, XXV, XXX, XXXV, XLIII; Northampton,
Mass., 1937—1957). The Latin text of the Commentaril de gestis Concilii
Basiliensis was published with English translation by Denys Hay and Wilfrid
K. Smith (Oxford, 1967). 
 Some of the sources for the crusades in the fifteenth century have been
treated by Nicolae lorga, Notes et extraits pour servir a I'histoire des
croisades au XVe siècle (6 vols., Paris, 1899—1916). The deliberations
of the Venetian senate have been abstracted by Freddy Thiriet, Régestes
des délibérations du sénat de Venise concernant la Romanie(3
vols., Paris and The Hague, 1958-1961). 
 The principal Greek sources for the events are Laonicus Chalcocondylas,
De Origine ac rebus Thrcorum (ed. Immanuel Bekker, CSHB, Bonn, 1843, and
ed. Eugen [Jeno] Darkó, Historiarum demonstrationes, 2 vols. in 3,
Budapest, 1922-1927), George Sphrantzes, Chronicon minus (PG, 156, and ed.
Vasile Grecu, Bucharest, 1966), and Ducas, Historia byzantina (ed. Bekker,
CSHB, Bonn, 1834, and ed. Grecu, Istorija turco-bizantiná 1341—1462,
Bucharest, 1958). 
 The naval campaign is narrated by John (Jehan) of Wavrin, uncle of the Burgundian
admiral Waleran of Wavrin, as Recueil des croniques et anchiennes istories
de ía Grant Bretaigne, a present nomme Engleterre, ed. William Hardy
and Edward L. C. P. Hardy (Rolls Series, 39; 5 vols., 1864—1891; repr.
Nendein, Liechtenstein, 1965—1972). The records of expenditures for
the Burgundian fleet are in the Archives du Nord, Lille, and have been partially
abstracted by Henri and Bernard Prost, Inventafres mobilières et extraits
des comptes des ducs de Bourgogne de Ia maison Valois, 1363—1477(2
vols., Paris, 1902-1913). An examination of the archives was published by
Leon E. S. J. de Laborde, Les Ducs de Bourgogne: Etudes sur les lettres,
les arts et l'industrie pendant le XVe siècle... (part 2, 3 vols.,
Paris, 1849—1852). 
 The deliberations of the Reichstag for Albert II were edited by Gustav Beckmann,
Deutsche Reichstagsakten (vol. XIII, Stuttgart, 1925), and by Helmut Weigel
(ibid., vol. XIV, Stuttgart, 1935; both vols. repr. Gottingen, 1957); those
for Frederick III by Hermann Herre, Ludwig Quidde, and Walter Kämmerer
(vols. XV—XVII, Stuttgart, 1963), containing valuable reports on the
progress of Turkish arms. The acts of Frederick III in the Haus-, Hof-, und
Staatsarchiv, Vienna, Joseph Chmel, ed., Regesta chronologico-diplomatica
Friderici IV Romanorum regis (imperatons III.) (Vienna, 1838; repr. Hildesheim,
1962), and supplemented by Adolph Bachmann, ed., Urkunden und Aktenstücke
zur österreichischen Geschichte im Zeitalter Kaiser Friedrichs III.
und Kônig Georgs von Bôhmen, 1440-1471 (Fontes rerum austriacarum:
Diplomataria et acta, XLII, part 2; Vienna, 1879). See Heinrich Koller, Das
Reichsregister KOnig 4 lbrechts IL (Vi- 


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