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Baldwin, M. W. (ed.) / The first hundred years
(1969)

XII: The Foundation of the Latin States, 1099-1118,   pp. 368-409 PDF (16.5 MB)


Page 368

 368XII 
THE FOUNDATION OF THE 
LATIN STATES, 1099—1118 
 fter the capture of the city of Jerusalem on July 15, 1099, most of the
crusaders felt that their work was done. They remained long enough to establish
a government to protect the Holy Sepulcher and to repel a Moslem attack from
Ascalon on August 12. Then the majority set out for their homes in Europe,
marching back to northern Syria in order to embark in Byzantine ships. As
we have seen in the preceding chapter, the crusaders of I ioI—i 102
did the same thing in their turn, and so we must now consider the situation
which these crusaders were leaving behind in Palestine and Syria. 
 The following are the more important primary sources used in this chapter.
The principal Arabic sources are Ibn-al-Qalanisi, Dhail tdrikh Diinashq (extracts
tr. and ed. H. A. R. Gibb, The Damascus Chronicle of the Crusades, London,
1932); Ibn-al-Athir, Al-ka~nil fi-t-ta'rikb (extracts in RHC, Or., I, 187—744);
Kamãl-ad-Din, Zubdat al-j.i~alab /1 ta'rikh ijalab (extracts in RHC,
Or., III, 577—690); and Sibt Ibn-al-Jauzi, Mir'at az-zaman (extracts
in RHC, Or., III, 517—570). The most valuable is Ibn-al-Qalanisi, a
Damascene chancery official who wrote between ii~o and ii6o, and who has
many details and is excellent in his chronology. The other Arabic writers
listed are of the thirteenth century and though they rely upon Ibn-alQalanisi
to some extent they each supply a great deal of information not found elsewhere.
 The chief Armenian source is Matthew of Edessa, Extraits de la chronique
de Matthieu d'Edesse (RHC, Arm., 1). Matthew, a monk, intensely patriotic,
wrote before 1140 and was very well informed regarding Armenian affairs.
 The principal Byzantine source is Anna Comnena, Alexiad (ed. B. Leib, 3
vols., Paris, 1937—1945). Anna, the daughter of the emperor Alexius
I Comnenus, wrote forty years after the events she describes. She is unreliable
in her chronology and reflects the anti-western prejudices of the Byzantines
of her day, but presents much of value from her point of vantage. 
 The most important Latin chronicles are Fuicher of Chartres, HistoriaHierosolymitana
(ed. H. Hagenmeyer, Heidelberg, 1913); Albert of Aix, Liber christianae expeditionis
(RHC, 0cc., IV); and William of Tyre, Historia rerum in partibus transmarinis
gestarum (RHC, 0cc., I). William's chronicle has been translated and supplied
with valuable notes by E. A. Babcock and A. c. Krey, History of Deeds Done
Beyond the Sea: by William, Archbishop of Tyre (Columbia University, Records
of Civilization, 2 vols., New York, ~943), and will be cited by book and
chapter. Fulcher, chaplain of king Baldwin I, is well informed but often
brief. Albert, writing after i 120, though he never visited the Latin states,
has the fullest account, partly legendary but mostly very useful. William,
chancellor of the kingdom of Jerusalem and a distinguished historian (d.
probably i i8~), relying upon Fuicher, Albert, and on private sources, is
remarkable for his discriminating judgment. Letters of the crusaders may
be found in H. Hagenmeyer, Epistulae et chartae ad historiam priini belli
sacri spectantes: 
Die Kreuzzugsbriele aus den Jahren xo88—ixoo (Innsbruck, 1901), H.
Hagenmeyer, "Chronologie de la premiere croisade," ROL, VI—Vill (i
898—I 901), and "Chronologie de l'histoire du royaume de Jerusalem"
(incomplete), ROL., IX—XII (1902—19 i z), are extremely useful
for chronology, but should be checked with Ibn-al-Qalãnisi, to whom
Hagenmeyer did not have access. 


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