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Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The art and architecture of the crusader states
(1977)

VII: Painting and Sculpture in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, 1099-1291,   pp. 251-280 PDF (11.6 MB)


Page 251

VII 
PAINTING AND SCULPTURE 
IN THE LATIN KINGDOM 
OF JERUSALEM 1099—1291 
 The recent growth of the available corpus of crusader art has stimulated
renewed interest in the field. In view of the new material, mostly painting,
and fresh studies, it is worth considering where we now stand. The nature
of crusader art (and architecture) is clearly much more complex than was
originally understood. The old theory of a colonial transfer of artists who
worked in their native style, a thesis originally formulated from a study
of the architecture and carried over to the sculpture, can no longer serve.
No doubt this phenomenon existed in crusader art, but the totality of painting
and sculpture known today demonstrates that it is only one aspect of a remarkably
diverse artistic development under the patronage of western European and
Levant-born crusaders. 
 Given the illustrated manuscripts, icons, frescoes, and mosaics that survive
from the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem, it is possible to identify two major
phases in the first two hundred years of crusader art. The first dates from
the conquest of Jerusalem on July 15, 1099, to its 
 A number of persons and institutions have rendered the writer substantial
assistance in the course of his studies on crusader art in general and in
the preparation of these remarks in particular. He would like to acknowledge
his gratitude to the following: Father B. L. Anto nucci, Church of the Annunciation,
Nazareth; B. Bagatti, OFM, and A. Storme, Museum of the Convent of the Flagellation,
Jerusalem; P. Benoit, OP, and Ch. Couasonon, OP, École bib lique et
archéologique française, Jerusalem, and Jean Trouvelot, architect
for the crusader church at AbU-Ghosh; Michael Burgoyne, British School of
Archeology, Jerusalem; I. Dak kak, director of the al-Aqsâ mosque restoration
project, and Mr. Tahboub, secretary to the Supreme Moslem Council, Jerusalem;
Dr. N. Firatli, National Archeological Museum, Istan bul; Elias Friedman,
ODC, Stella Mans Convent, Mt. Carmel; Dr. B. Narkiss, The Hebrew University,
Jerusalem; Mrs. Inna Pommerantz and Dr. L. Y. Rahmani, Israel Department
of Antiquities and Museums, Jerusalem; Dr. C. L. Striker, director of the
Kalenderhane Camii project, Istanbul; Mr. Dan Urman, secretary to the Survey
of Israel, Jerusalem; and Dr. Kurt Weitzmann, Princeton University. Finally,
his thanks go to the American Council of Learned Societies, to the National
Endowment for the Humanities, and to the University of North Carolina, Chapel
Hill, for the financial help which made the research possible. 
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