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Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The art and architecture of the crusader states
(1977)

VI: The Arts in Frankish Greece and Rhodes,   pp. 208-250 PDF (16.3 MB)


Page 208

VI 
THE ARTS IN FRANKISH 
GREECE AND RHODES 
A. Frankish Greece 
 The territories of the Latin empire created after the fall of Constantinople
in 1204 were always somewhat ill defined. In Asia Minor the Greeks maintained
their rallying point at Nicaea, and in Europe little was secure against Bulgarian
inroads north of Adria nople or west of the Maritsa valley. Epirus was never
conquered, and the kingdom of Thessalonica was wrested from the Franks by
the Epirote ruler Theodore in 1224; Thessaly remained debatable ground; only
in Phocis, where the marquisate of Bodonitsa guarded 
 Much of this section is based on the notes and the corpus of photographs
made by David Wallace in the four years before the second world war, at a
time, remote as it is, when this corporate history of the crusades was already
being discussed. Wallace was killed in an attack on a German fortified post
at Menina, near Preveza, in August 1944. His photographs are deposited at
the Courtauld Institute of Art in the University of London. 
 The articles by C. Enlart, "Quelques monuments d'architecture gothique en
Grèce," Revue de l'art chrétien, ser. 4, VIII (1897), 309-314,
and by R. Traquair, "Frankish Architecture in Greece," Journal of the Royal
Institute of British Architects, ser. 3, XXXI (1923), 34-48, 73-83, are the
only general surveys of ecclesiastical architecture. J. A. Buchon, La Grèce
continen tale et la Morée: Voyage, séjour et etudes historiques
en 1840 et 1841 (Paris, 1843), and Atlas des nouvelles recherches historiques
sur la principauté franque de Morée et ses hautes baronnies,
fondées a la suite de la quatrième croisade (Paris, 1845),
and H. F. Tozer, "The Franks in the Peloponnese," Journal of Hellenic Studies,
IV (1883), 207-236, deal mainly with the castles, of which some have been
studied in more detail by R. Traquair, "Laconia; I. Mediaeval Fortresses,"
Annual of the British School at Athens, XII (1906), 25 9-276, and "Mediaeval
Fortresses of the North-Western Peloponnesus," ibid., XIII (1907), 268-281;
and by A. Bon, "Forteresses médiévales de la Grèce centrale,"
Bulletin de correspondance hellénique, LXI (1937), 136-208, "Note
additionelle sur les forteresses médiévales de la Grèce
centrale," ibid., LXII (1938), 441-442, and "Recherches sur la principauté
d'Achaie (1205-1430)," in Etudes médiévales offertes a M. le
Doyen Augustin Fliche . . . (Publications de Ia Faculté des lettres
de l'Université de Montpellier, IV; Montpellier, 1952), pp. 7-21.
Professor Bon's book La Morée franque: Recherches historiques, topographiques
et archéologiques sur la principauté d'Achaie (1205-1430) (Bibliothêque
des Ecoles francaises d'Athènes et de Rome, fasc. 213; Paris, 1969)
is a detailed and complete survey of the subject. I am indebted to him and
to the Librarian of the Sorbonne for the loan of this work in typescript
before it appeared. Supplementing Bon's work is W. McLeod, "Castles of the
Morea in 1467," Byzantinische Zeitschrift, LXV (1972), 35 3-363; McLeod also
cites a useful book by J. Th. Sphekopoulos, T& Meaa~LwvLI~i Kchirpa roe
Mopr~& (Athens, 1968), no. 5, pp. 161-199. K. Andrews, Castles of the
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