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Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The art and architecture of the crusader states
(1977)

IV: Military Architecture in the Crusader States in Palestine and Syria,   pp. 140-164 PDF (8.9 MB)


Page 140

IV 
MILITARY ARCHITECTURE 
IN THE CRUSADER STATES 
IN PALESTINE AND SYRIA 
 In the extent of its remains and the scale of its building, crusader fortification
is more immediately impressive than crusader church building. Guillaume Rey
in 1871 published his Etude sur les monuments de i'architecture militaire
des cro isés en Syrie et dans l' ile de Chypre with numerous plans
and drawings. It was a revelation to western archaeologists. Sauvageot's
drawing for it of a "vue restaurée" (something in the manner of Viollet-le-Duc)
of Krak des Chevaliers kindled the imagination. With the development of photography
and eventually the interest taken in them under the French mandate in Syria,
the castles became well known. It was generally held that in these vast and
massive buildings medieval military science of the west had found its greatest
stimulus and fullest development. 
 In addition to E. G. Rey, Etude sur les monuments de l'architecture militaire
des croisés en Sync et dans l'Ile de Chypre (Collection de documents
inédits sur l'histoire de France; Paris, 1871), and Les Colonies franques
de Syrie au XIIme et XIIIme siècles (Paris and Geneva, 1883), both
of which are still valuable, the main authority is P. Deschamps, Les Châteaux
des croisés en Terre Sainte; I. Le Crac des Chevaliers: Etude historique
et archéologique, précédée d'une introduction
générale sur la Syrie franque (Haut Commissariat de la République
française en Syrie et au Liban, Service des antiquités, Bibliothèque
archéologique et historique, vol. XIX, 2 parts, text and album; Paris,
1934); II.LaDéfense du royaume de Jerusalem: Etude historique, géographique
et monumentale (idem, Bibliotheque archéologique et historique, vol.
XXXIV, 2 parts,text and album; Paris, 1939); III. La Defense du Comté
de Tripoli et de la Principauté d'Antioche (idem, Bibliothèque
archCologique et historique, vol. XC, 2 parts, text and album; Paris, in
press) [J. F.] . See also the bibliographical note of chapter III for general
works on Syrian archaeology. R. C. Smail, "Crusaders' Castles of the Twelfth
Century," Cambridge Historical Journal, X (1951), 133-149, and Crusading
Warfare, 1097-1193 (Cambridge Studies in Medieval Life and Thought, n.s.,
vol. III; Cambridge, 1956) are important contributions to the subject, and
R. Fedden and J. Thomson, crusader Castles (London, 1957) is a sound and
well-illustrated summary, particularly valuable for Armenian castles. T.
E. Lawrence, Crusader Castles (2 vols., London, 1936) is a provocative study,
which owes much of its interest to the personality of the author. See also
W. Müller-Wiener, Castles of the Crusaders, 
140 


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