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Zacour, N. P.; Hazard, H. W. (ed.) / The impact of the Crusades on the Near East
(1985)

VIII: The Teutonic Knights in the Crusader States,   pp. 315-378 PDF (24.7 MB)


Page 315

VIII 
THE TEUTONIC KNIGHTS 
IN THE CRUSADER STATES 
A. Foundation and Organization of the Order 
 he two oldest military religious orders — the order of the Temple
and the order of the Hospital of St. John — came into existence after
the successful First Crusade. The former evolved from a handful of devout
Frankish knights in Jerusalem who had vowed to defend with the sword the
Christian pilgrims and pilgrim routes to the holy places 
 The basic source for the founding of the Teutonic order is an anonymous
contemporary account, Narracio de primordiis ordinis theutonici; the best
editions of the text are by Max Töppen in Scriptores rerum prussicarum:
Die Geschichtsquellen der preussischen Vorzeit bis zum Untergange der Ordensherrschaft
(5 vols., Leipzig, 1861—1874), I, 220-225; Max Peribach, Die Statuten
des Deutschen Ordens (Halle, 1890), pp. 159—160; and Waither Hubatsch,
Quellen zur Geschichte des Deutschen Ordens (Quellensammiung zur Kulturgeschichte,
V; Gottingen, 1954), pp. 26—30. The authoritative source for the organization
and internal life of the Teutonic Knights is the statutes of the order, ed.
Peribach (see above); tr. Indrikis Sterns, The Statutes of the Teutonic Knights:
A Study of Religious Chivalry (diss., University of Pennsylvania, 1969).
The principal collection of original documents relative to the compilation
of the statutes, the order's possessions in the crusader states, its economic
policy, and its disputes with the Hospitallers and Templars is edited by
Ernst Strehlke, Tabulae ordinis theutonici ex tabularii regii Berolinensis
codice (Berlin, 1869; repr. Toronto, 1975). 
 There is no single collection of sources for the deeds of the Teutonic Knights;
their participation in crusade warfare is only occasionally mentioned in
various medieval chronicles. The chief works are Oliver (Saxo), Historia
Damiatina, ed. Hermann Hoogeweg, Die Schriften des KOlner Domscholasters,
späteren Bischofs von Paderborn und Kardinal-Bischofs von S. [sic, error]
Sabina Oliverus, in Bibliothek des litterarischen Vereins in Stuttgart, CCII
(Tübingen, 1894), 159-282; tr. John J. Gavigan, The Capture of Damietta
by Oliver of Paderborn (Philadelphia, 1948); Matthew Paris, Chronica majora,
ed. Henry R. Luard (Rolls Series, 57; 7 vols., 1872—1883); tr. John
A. Giles, Matthew Paris's English History from the Year 1235 to 1273 (3 vols.,
London, 1852—1854); Roger of Wendover, Flores historiarum, ed. Henry
G. Hewlett (Rolls Series, 84; 3 vols., 1886—1889); tr. Giles, Flowers
of History: The History of England from the Descent of the Saxons to A.D.
1235 (2 vols., London, 1849); L'Estoire de Eracles empereur et Ia conquest
de la terre d'Outremer: La continuation de l'Estoire de Gulllaume arcevesque
de Sur (RHC, 0cc., II, 1-481); Continuation de Guillaume de Tyr, de 1229
a 1261, dite du manuscrit de Rothelin (RHC, 0cc., II, 483—639); Philip
of Novara, Mémoires, in Les Gestes des Chiprois, ed. Gaston Raynaud
(SOL, SH, V; Geneva, 1887), pp. 25-138; also in RHC, Arm., II, 651—736;
portion ed. Charles Kohler (Les Classiques francais du moyenâge, X;
Paris, 1913); tr. John L. LaMonte and Merton J. Hubert, The Wars of Frederick
II 
315 


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