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United States. Office of Indian Affairs / Annual report of the commissioner of Indian affairs, for the year 1884
([1884])

Reports of agents in California,   pp. 9-18 PDF (4.6 MB)


Page 9

REPORTS OF AGENTS IN         CALIFORNIA.                 9 
vestigating the whole questiou, as to the extent and probable value of the
coal de- 
posit, and should be prepared when he has concluded his investigation to
give all 
needed information on a subject of which little has heretofore been known.
I have on former occasions opposed the establishment of a school at this
agency, 
on the ground that the Apaches should first be taught to labor. Having seen
them 
well advanced on the road of physical industry, I cheerfully recomm-nd the
organi- 
zation of a school for boys only, at the earliest practicable period, and
will give to 
it my best efforts to insure success. 
During the year four pupils have returned from Hampton school and are now
living 
on the reservation. Two of them, Tolma and Stagon, have enlisted as military
scouts, 
and are serving in that capacity. Robert McIntosh and William Roberts are
now 
employ6s at the agency as interpreters. All but William Roberts have purchased
squaws and returned to the habits of their people. To be married to a squaw
signi- 
fies an abandonment of the refinements of civilization, though some of its
custobas 
may still be cherished; and in this regard these recent converts to Christianity,
and 
graduates of an excellent institution of learning, are no exception. Boys
taken from 
the tribe should remain at school until they have mastered the trades in
which they 
are instructed, so as to be able to construct, complete, whatever they undertake.
No Indian police force has been employed during the year, the service having
been 
performed by military scouts. I have but now commenced the organization of
an 
agency forc, and have full confidence in its efficiency to perform all the
duties of 
police among the Indians in the vicinity of the agency, which includes all
on the 
reservation, except those near Apache under military control. It is not improbable
that conflict will occur between the agency and military scouts if the latter
are per- 
mitted to remain in service at this place, as I have no power to control
their move- 
ments; but I cannot conceive the possibility of a long continuance of a policy
so 
injurious to the service as that now existing, which sustains two establishments
for 
the performance of one duty. 
The health of the Indians has not been affected by any unusual conditions
of sick- 
ness; the ordinary diseases common to hot climates, miasmatic bottom lands,
impure 
water and unrestrained license in social life, have prevailed unaided in
the work of 
extermination. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,        . P.WILCOX, 
United States indian Agent, 
The COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. 
HOOPA VALLEY AGENCY, CALIFORNIA, 
August 1, 1884. 
SIR: In compliance with your instructions of July 1, 1884, I have the honor
to sub- 
mit the following annual report of affairs at this agency: 
The Indians on the Hoopa Valley Reservation have been, during the past year,
peaceful and well-behaved. Their relations with the white population have
been 
satisfactory. No new or violent quarrels have broken out among themselves.
The 
two homicidal quarrels, to which reference was made in my last annual report,
have 
been satisfactorily and peacefully adjusted according to their Indian laws
and usages. 
The influences of the medicine men are, I think, being to some extent diminished
or counteracted. Every possible effort by every available means has been
made to 
subserve that end. But whilst some improvement can in that respect be truthfully
reported, much yet remains to be accomplished. The weaknesses, prejudices,
and 
superstitions, by and upon which the Indian medicine men flourish, are of
too long.% 
growth and are too deeply rooted to be easily or speedily eradicated. 
The morals of the adult Indians remain unchanged in their laxity. They are,
how- 
ever, far enough advanced in the process of civilization to pay a decent
respect to 
appearances. 
The whisky traffic still continues. I have not heard of many cases of intoxication
among the Indians, but of course all drunkenness is studiously concealed
from my 
observation. I hear of Indians having been drunk only when some deed of violence,
which could not be concealed, has been threatened or committed in and through
their 
drunkenness. A few Indians who were found drunk and quarrelsome were placed
in 
the guard-house at Fort Gaston, and compelled to work under charge of a sentinel.
This had a wholesome deterrent effect. It has at least caused drunken Indians
to be 
more circumspect and less demonstrative. Whilst I have good moral grounds
for sus- 
picion and belief as to where the whisky has been in most of these instances
procured, 
I have and can obtain no such legal and overwhelming proof as is needed for
the con- 
viction of the liquor dealers in the civil courts of the country. It is almost
impracti- 
cable to secure the testimony of Indians as to where they bought or Iprocured
whisky. 
Now 


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