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United States. Office of Indian Affairs / Annual report of the commissioner of Indian affairs, for the year 1863
([1863])

California superintendency,   pp. 89-107 PDF (7.6 MB)


Page 89

89 
CALIFORNIA SUPERINTENDENCY. 
CALIFORNIA SUPERINTENDENCY. 
No. 28. 
OFFICE INDIAN AFFAIRS, NORTHERN DISTRICT CALIFORNIA, 
San Francisco, Septcmbcr 7, 1863. 
Sut: In submitting my annual report, I shall not dwell in detail upon the
various reasons which I have given in former reports in favor of reducing
the 
number of Indian reservations from four to two, and enlarging those retained,
and selling Mendocino and Nome-Lackee reservations, and applying the proceeds
to the payment of the settlers' improvements in Round and Smith River valleys,
thereby securing to the Indian service a good and suitable location for all
the 
coast Indians, and one for the interior Indians, where they could and would
be 
contented and happy. In adopting this policy nearly one-half the expense
of 
keeping the reservations would be saved to the government in the matter of
tools, teams, and employies. 
Again, in connexion with economy, allow me to assure you that, had one- 
quarter of the money expended by the United States in the employment and
maintenance of troops for the subjugation and collection of Indians been
faith- 
fully applied to the procurement of suitable reservations and stocking the
same 
well with tools, teams, cattle, sheep, &c., &c., thereby making desirable
homes 
for the Indians, not one-quarter of the trouble between the races would ever
have existed. But the policy of the ggvernment has been to expend millions
for troops, and a few scanty thousands for the comfort and maintenance of
the 
Indians; and while the government pursues this pennywise policy, the Indian
service must ever remain in a crippled condition. 
In truth the troops, as a general thing, stationed at or near Indian reserva-
tions, are a great curse to the Indian service, for, in spite of the vigilant
efforts 
of their own officers and of the officers and employds on the reservation,
sol- 
diers will clandestinely mix and cohabit with the squaws, thereby spreading
dis- 
ease and death broadcast among them. If, therefore, the policy I have so
fre- 
quently and importunately urged be adopted, of employing none onthe reserva-
tions but married men of good deportment, and increasing the laboring force
so 
as to give each reservation a supervisor, who should be an energetic and
prac- 
tical farmer, one physician, one blacksmith, one carpenter, one miller, and
one 
herdsman, and a laborer with each tribe of Indians thus settled on the various
farms, suited in size to the number of Indians in the tribes, and a suitable
mar- 
ried man as farmer, and each of those farmers provided with suitable barns,
cribs, dwelling and out-houses, sheds, &c., then each of these reservations
would 
be self-protecting as against the kidnappers, squaw-men, and all intruders.
As to the perfect safety of the employes against the Indians, no instance
has ever occurred, under my notice or hearing, endangering in the least the
white employes. Hence the propriety of at once adopting this policy. Re-
duce the number of reservations to two, make a more liberal appropriation,
es- 
pecially for one or two years, and remove all -settlers and soldiers from
the 
reservation entirely; then, and not till then, will the Indian service prosper
in 
California. 
A saw and grist mill is needed in Round valley. I have selected an ex- 
cellent site for one, in close proximity to the valley, to be run by water
power, 
and will make a commencement on the dam immediately. The machinery and 
work of a millwright, however, will require more funds than can be had from
the last year's scanty appropriation. 
The Indians recently collected in Butte county, together with those that
were 
driven from or left Round valley last September, have involved an expense
of 
some four or five thousand dollars. They are now being removed to Round 
valley. I could not negotiate for their removal by water to Smith river for
less 


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