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Perrault, Claude, 1613-1688 / Memoir's for a natural history of animals : containing the anatomical descriptions of several creatures dissected by the Royal Academy of Sciences at Paris
(1688)

The anatomical description of a cormorant,   pp. 133-138 ff.


Page 136


I36                   Tbe Anatomical Dejfriplion
this flefhie Membrane had neither the thickne{s nor hardnefs which is ordi.
narily remarked in the Gizzard of Birds. And it is probable that this part
was thus fleihie and Mufdulcus, to kerve to fqueeze and more eafily to make
afcend towards the Pylorms that which is delcended to the long and narrow
bottom of thle Ventricle, when the concodfion of the aliment is there finiffied;
the hard and Fibrous Fleflh of the Gizards being made more ftrongly to com-
prefs, and as it were to bruife the hard and dry grains which Birds do feed
on, and not being neceffary for thoIt which do live only upon Flethi, or
Fith
like the Cormorant.
  The external Membrane of the Ventricle was white, and appeared of two
fubifances; its external part being Nervous and hard at top, and fleihie
at
bottom, as has been declared, and its internal part being quaggie, and mu-
cous, fo that it feemed that by the means of this internal part the two M4em-
branes of the Ventricle were glued together. The internal Membrane, Nv ich
was f6mewhat reddiff, was Glandulous, and compofed of an infinite num-
ber of fmall Glands a line and a half long, and about the thicknefs of a
great
pin: thefe little Glands did touch each other, according to their length,
and
were faTtened, and as it were glued together, by a fubilance refemblilng
their
own, but fomewhat lefs firm, and flimie. Their extremities were mole
firmly faflend, viz, the lower ones which proceeded fiom the external
Membrane of the Ventricle, and the upper ones which did adhere each to
other, and did form the internal Superficies of the Ventricle; fo that boti
the ends of the Glands did render this internal Superficies like Chagrin;
which Coth very well reprefent the Velvet of the great Ventricle of Ani..
mals, which chew not the Cud, if it be imagined that the little long Teats
which do compofe this Velvet were joyned -to each other, as conglomerated
Glands generally are; whereas in Animals which chew the Cud, there
little Teats are Separated from each other, being only fafined to the inter.
nal Membrane of the great Ventricle by their roots. In fome Ojiriches we
have found the internal Membrane of the Gizzard of a Strudure wholly like
to this.
  In the Superiour part of the Ventricle towards the Orifice, there were
feveral Worms eight or ten lines long, and about the thicknefs of a midling
pin. They were white and transparent, and in the middle of their body
there was feen as it were a blackifh Vein, going from the Head to the Tail
which was more pointed than the Head, which was finaller than the mid-
dle of the Body. At the bottom of the Ventricle there was a matter like
to black blood half curdled. And it is probable that it was in effed from
the blood which was fallen into this place, by reafbn of a blow whichlthe
Bird had received upon the head.
  Trhe Inteftines were feven foot long. They had not thofe two Appen-
dies which do form as it were two Cezcurns, which Be/onims reports to be
in all Birds. We found that thel& forts of Inteffines were likewife want-
ilg in an Eagle called Haliactos, and fome other Birds. All the Inteftines
of our Cormora;t were of the fame bignefs, containing two lines diameter.
They were inclofed with the Ventricle in an Epiploon, which Pliny averrs,
not to be in thefe Birds. This Epiploon had a great deal of Fat, hard like
                                                                Tallow.


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