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Hooke, Robert, 1635-1703 / Micrographia: or some physiological descriptions of minute bodies made by magnifying glasses : with observations and inquiries thereupon
(MDCLXVII [1667])

Observ. XXII. Of common sponges, and several other spongie fibrous bodies,   pp. 135-140

Page 137

                MICROGR APH IA.
great holes or pores obfervable in thefe Sponges were made by the ertu-
ption of the included Heterogeneous iubftance (whether air, or fume
other body, for many other fluid bodies will do the fame thing) which
breaking out of the lefier, were collected into very large bubbles, and
fo might make their way out of the Sponge, and in their paflage might
leave a round cavity ; and if it were largemight carry up with it the ad-
jacent bubbles, which may be perceiv'd at the outfide of the Sponge, if
it be firfi throughly wetted, and fuffer'd to I plinp it felf into its natural
form, or be then wrung dry, and fLufflr'd to expamd it felf again, which
will freely do whil'ft moift: for when it has thulS p[lump'd it felf into
natural &hape and dimenfions 'tis obvious enough that the mouths ofthe
larger holes have a kind of lip or rifing round about them, but the other
fmaller pores have little or none. It may further be found, that each of
thefe great pores has many other fmall I pores below, that are united unto
it, and help to conffitnte it, almofi like io many rivulets or frnall ftreatms
thatcontribute to the maintenance of a large River.  Nor from this
Hypothefis would it have been difficult to explicate, how thofe little
branches of coral, fmal stones, ske/is, and the like, come to be included
by thefe frothy bodies: But this inded was but a conje&ure ; and upon
a more accurate enquiry into the form of it with the Aficrofcope, it feems
not to be the true origine of them; for whereas Sponges have onely
three arms which join together at each knot, if they had been generated
from bubbles they muft have had four.
  But that they are Animal Subftances, the  i.yrical examination of
thetn feems to manifefi, tley affording a volatil Salt and fpirit,like Harts-
HoM5 as does alfo their great ftrength and toughnefs, and their fimell
when burn'd in the Fire or a Candle, which has a kind of fefley fent,not
much unlike to hair. And having fince examin'd feveral Authors con-
cerning them,among others,l find this account given by BelloriW, in the
X 1. chap. of his 2d Book, De Aquatilihbs. spongixe receztes, fays he, aftck
longe diverfrfcopulis aqxce marine ad duos vel tres cubitos,nonntnquamn qua-
titer tantum digitos imwerfs, utfungi arboribus adhkerentf ordido quodavi
fiucco axt rflucofapotiuS bnic refiertxenfqJe adcd'fetidaaut veiemlinw naureamn
excitet, continetur anttem i7 cavernix, quas imanes in fcc- & lotis spongiis
cernimus: Pwtrispulmonis modo nigrx confficiuntmur, verurm que in Jitbih
aquax nafuvntur wt/to magis opaca nigredine Juffifufnt. livere quideo
Spovgiws adharendo Ariftoteles cenjzit: alfoltae vero minime: fienfurque
aliquem habere, vel eo argwuento (inqxit) credantur, quod d~fricilmne ab-
flrahantxr,ni' clanculum agatxr:Atq; ad avdfris accejjrx ita contrahanitur,
utt eas eve/lere difficile fit, quod idern etiawfaciunt quotiesfiatfts tempoea-
tifque hirgent. Puto autem ill/s Juecu nfirdidurw quern Jfpra tdiximwrn 
nis loco a natura attribumtu   fitJc : atque meatibus latioribA& tan-
quar inteflinis ant interaneks uti. Cxterurn pars ea qxe Spongia? cautibmr
adhwrent efi tanquawfolii petiolus, a quo vel/xti coll/, quoddamgracile in-
cipit: qzod deinde in tat itudinedJiifrnfcapitis globurn ,facit. Ptecewtibl
mihz! eJifiJiulaoii, heftantque tan quam radicitw. Snperne omnes propemo-
dumn meatits COncrcti latent . inferne vera qufterni aut qwini patentper
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