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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Z - zythum,   pp. 390-392 PDF (2.4 MB)

Page 390

r 390J1
Z ~The 1Af Letter in the Alphabet, and one of
the double Confontints, both among the La-
9tins and Greeks. See LErTTR and CONSO-
Its Pronunciation is much more fofi and obtufe than the
X, which makes Queintilian call it .Molliffmum, and Sua-
vifflmum-Neverthelcfs, the Sound wa not alwas &the
famne as it is now 5 which is but, as it were, half that of
an S.
It had fomnething alfo in it of the D 5 but only what
founded very finoothly : Thus, Mezentius was pronounced
as if it had been Medfentius, Vec. See D.
The Z had alfo an affinity with the G :Thus,- Cael;
Z, fays he, ' Grecis venit, licet etiam i~pjlprimo G Grec*
taebantur. See G.
Z was alfo a. Numeral Letter, 6ignifying a-ooo i accor-
ding to the Vcrfe:
Ultima Z tenensfinem bis mule tenebit.
When a Dalh was added a-top, 'Z_ it fignificd two thou-
find times two thoisfand.
ZAIM, a Portion of Land, allotted for the Subfiftence of
a Herfe-man in the flirki/h Militia ; call'd alfo Vimar. See
ZAIRAGIA, or ZAIRP.AG I AU, a kind of Divination, in
tife among the Arabs. See DIVINATION.
It is perform'd by means of divers Wheels, or Circles
placed Concentric to one another, and noted with feveral
letters, which are brought to anfwer to each other by
moving the Circles according to certain Rules.
'Tis alfo call'd Zaraiadb, by reafon the Circles of this
Machine, which are Mutaraziat, Leflak, &c. correfpond
to the Orbs of the Planets, and the A tmofpheres of each
ZEAL, Zztus, ~natg-, the Exercife of a warm, vehe-
ment, animated Affe~lion, or Paffion for any thing. See
Some will hxve Zeal to be properly a mix'd, or compound
Senfation, where one Affztion is rais'd or inflamn'd by ano-
thot-On thefe Principles, it may be defined an Af.
feffion arifing from Love and Indignation, which cannot
bear a thing to be given to another that a Perfon defires for
bimfelf, or one whom he loves and favours-Othcrs
make it confift in an eager Study or Defire to keep arny
thing inviolate;5 or a Fervour of Mind arifing from an Indig-
nation againfi thofe who abufe or do evil to a Perfon be-
The Greek Philofophers make three Species of Zeal-
The flrfl, of Envy: The fecond, of Emulation, or Imi-
tation :The third, of Piety, or Devotion;5 which makes
what the Divines call Religious Zeal. See EmULATION, &eC.
Yofelbus fpeaks much of a Party or Faction call'd the
Zealous, or Zealots;5 which arofe among the Yews during
the War with Vefpaftian and fiitus. Lib. XIV. c. 6. Antiq.
&Lib. IV. c. I i. de B6ello Juidaico.
ZEDOARIA, ZEDOARY, 1 Medicinal Root belonging
to a Plant growing in the Eajt-Indies, whofe Leaves are
like thofe of Ginger, only longer and broader. See RooT.
zedvary is of an Alh-colour,' has an Aromatic, bitterifhi
Talie; and comes into the Clafs of Cephalics; But it is alfo
reckon'd by many anmongft the Alexipharmics, whereupon it
comes to have a Place in the Capitals;~ and is even faid to
prevent Infe~1ions by holding it only in the Mouth.  See
on account of its agreeable Bitter, it alfo is prefcribed
among Stoniachics ; and for its fpicy Warmth is commen-
tied in Cholics, and Hyflerical Affealions, for promoting the
Menfes, ~ex. See AROMATICS.
ZEN lTH, in Ailronomy, the Vertical Point ; or a Point
in the Heavens direffly over our Head. See VERTEX
Or the Zenith is aPoint, as Z (Tab.ASTRONOMY,Fig. 5 a)
in the Surface of the Sphere, from which a right Line
,drawn through the Speaator's Head, paffes through the
Centreof the Earth. See VERTEX and VERTICAL.
Hence, there are as many Zenitbis as there are different
places on the Earth where the Heavens may be feen ; and
upon the changing our Place, we alfo change our Zenith.
The Zenith is alfo call'd the !Poleof the 'Horizoo, be.
caufe 90 Degrees diflant from each Point thereof. See Ro-
It is alfo the Pole of all the Almicantarst or Parallels Of
the Horizon, whereby the Altitude of the Stare is eftima-
Through the Zenith paiTeth the Vertical-Circles, or Azi-
muth. See VERTICAL CirCle.
The Point diametrically oppofite to the Zenith, is call'd
the Nadir ; which is the Poin~t direffly under our Fee t. See
The Nadir is the Zenith to our Antipodes ; as our Zenith
is theNadir to them. See ANTIPOIDES.
ZENITn-diflance, is the Complement of the Sun, or
Stars Meridian Altitude;5 or what the Meridian Altitude
wants of 90 Degrees. See COMPLEMENT and ALTITUDE.
ZENSUS, in Arithmetic, a Name which fomne Authors
give to a fquare Number;5 or the fecond Power. See
SqUARE Number and POWER.-
The higher Powers they call Zenflizenfits, Zenfricubus, Zen-
fizenzenfius, Zenfurdefolidus, Wc. See POWER.
ZEPHYRUS, or ZEPHYR, the Wefl-wind 5 or a Wind
blowing from that Cardinal Point of the Horizon oppohite
to the Eafl. See WEST, WIND, and CARDINAL POint.
It is alfo call'd Favonius, and Occidens i and by many
confounded with A4fricus.
The Word is Greek cioup,_1-.-The Poets perfontify it.
ZETETICE, ZETETIC Mlethod, in Mathematics, the
Method made ufe of to invefligate or find the Solution of
The Word is forma'd from the Greek ~n'i-ie, I feek.
The antient P~yrrhonians were fometimes call'd zete-
tici, q. d. Seekers. See PYRRHONIANS.
ZEST, the woody, thick Skin, quartering the Kernel of
The Word is alfo uifed for a Chip of Orange or Lemnmon-
Peel ; fuch as is ufually fqueezed into Ale, Wine, Lec. to
give it a Flavour.
Hence, to ZeJt an Orange or Zemmon, among Confe~lio~
ners, is to cut the Peel from Top to Bottom into fmnall Slips,
as thin as poffible.
ZETA, or ZETECULA, a little withdrawing Chamber,
with Pipes running along the Walls to receive from be-
low either the cool Air or the Heat of warm Water. See
The 'Word is form'd either of 7, ~tr, to be warm;5 or
Of Tk(v vivere, to live.
ZEUGMA, a Figure in Grammar, whereby an Adjeffive
or Verb which agrees with a nearer Word, is alfo, by way of
Supplement, referr'd to another more remote. See FIGuRE.
Thus, i'erence-Utiizam aut hic fiurdus, aut bee
muetafaftlafit--So Virgil-Hic illius A4rma hic currus
fuit. in which Cafes, the Words fala fir agreeing prima-
rily with ha'c mutar, are alfo made to agree or extend to hi;
fierdus: And the Verb fuit is not only refer'd to hic cur-
rus, which it properly refpeffs, but further to hic illius
The Latins, it may be here obferved, take a liberty in
Con{3rruffion, which fome of the nicer Critics among the
Moderns, particularly the French, will not allow in the
modernTongues. SeeCONSTRUCTION.
The word Zeugma is Greek, ~s~yfa which literally de-
notes a joining together.
ZIBETHUM, Cawii'v, in Natural Hiflory, Civet5 a
Perfume like Musk, contain'd in a kernelly Bladder in
the Groin of a Civet-Cat. See CivET.
ZIN DIKITES, a Seal among the Mabometans, denomi-
nated from their Leader Zindik, whom Grotius makes to
be one of the Magi, and a Follower of Zoroafler. See MAGI.
The Zindikites believe no Providence nor Refurreacion-.
They own no other God but the four Elements;5 and in this
fenfe affert, that a Matn being a Mixture of tbofe fimple,
Bodies, returns to God when he dies.
ZINK, or ZAIM, a, kind of Mineral, or Semii-mnetal,,
which forne 'confound with ZBifimuth, and others with Spel-
ter. See BiSMUTH, SPELTER,wc.
Others call it Female-A4ntimzony. Ste ANTIMONY.
Zink is a kind of Mineral-Lead, very hard, white, and
brillant ; and which, tho' not duaile enough to denorni.

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