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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Secondine - series,   pp. 41-60 PDF (19.9 MB)

Page 55

I~i 4 I
ight, could fee, for fonme Time, to iead a moderate
In the ThilkfpL. ?raf No. 312. we have an
nt of 'Dan. Frajer, Who continuedcaf an Dumb,
is Birth to the i7th tYear of his Age ; when, upon
ring fom a Fever, he perceived an uneafy Motion
JBraj, after which he began to hear, ando by de-
to  eak. ' Grimaldi afEirms, That iome Women of
a wTere able, by their Eyes alone, to diilinguilh be-
Eggs lay'd by black Hens, and thof by white
amn 2-1    T-w   H                   by   hit
ML'.''SENSES. A late excellent Author, gives us a more Juf,
Oil Extenfive, and Philofophical Notion of Senfhe. On his
m .Principle, Senfe is defined, A Po'ter of Perception; or A
.gp. wer of receiving Ideas; If what is abfloutely Pafl ye
tfay be properly called a Power. On fome Occafioni,
jnHead of 'Powver, he chufes to call it, A Determination
o f the Mind, to receive Ideas. See IDEA. The Ideas
thus perceived, or railed in the Mind, he calls Senfa-
5     .tion s
'  SENSE, he confiders, either as Natural, orMoral: and
t ie Natural, either as External, or Internal; though the
1 biffribution is chiefly founded on the common Ways of
conceiving; for, in Reality, they appear to be all Natural,
and neceffcary: Some Reafons, however, for the Diflindi-
! hi on, will be lhewn under the feveral Articles thereof
l Sternal SENSES, are Powers of perceiving Ideas, upon
55 ne Prefence of external Objefs. On  fuch. Occafions,
*e find the Mind is merely Paffive, and has not Power
direaly to prevent the Perception, or Idea, or to vary it
Reception; as long as the Body is continued in a
State fit to be aaed upon by the external Objedl. When
two Perceptions are entirely different from  each other,
or agree in nothing  but the general Idea of Senia-
tioni the Power o  receiving thofe different Perceptions,
are called ieent Senfes. Thus Seeing and Hearing de-
note the different Powers of receiving the Ideas of Co-
kztrs, and Sounds. And though Colours, as well as
Sounds, have vait Differences amongfil themselves; yet
is there a greater Agreement among the moft oppofite
Colours, than betwen any Colour and a Sound: And
hence all Colours are deemed Perceptions of the fame
SenJA. All the Ieveral Senfes feem to have their diflinct
(rgans, except Feeling, which is, in fome Degree, difFu-
fed over the whole Body.
Internal SENSES, are Powers, or Determinations of
iheMind, to be pleafed with certain Forms, and Ideas,
which occur to our Obfervation, in Objels perceived by
the external Senfes. Of thefe there are two different
Species, diflinguifh'd by the different Objefs of Plea-
flare, viz. Pleafurable or Beautiful Forms of natural
Things, awd- Pleafurable or Beautiful A&ions, or Cha-
ralters of-rational Agents: Whence the Internal Senfes
become divifible into Natural and Moral ; though
what we call the Internal Natural Senfe, our Author calls
,imply, and by way of Eminence, the Internal Senfe.
In refleding on our external Senfes, we plainly fee,
that our Perceptions of Pleafure, or Pain, do not depend
direcfly on our Will. Objeds do not pleafe us according
Ias we incline they lhould: The Prelence of 1ome Ob-
jefts necelfarily pleafe us, and the Prefence of others as
neceifarily dilpleafseusu5; nor can we, by our Will, any
otherwife procure Pleafure, or avoid Pain, than by pro-
curing the   former Kind of Objeds, and avoiding the
fiatter  ~By the very Frame of our Nature, the one is
made the Occafion of Delight, and the other of Diffa-
dtisfafion. In Effeff, our Ientitive Perceptions are plea-
* fint, and painful, immediately, and without any Know-
led. eof t Ca ule   of this Pleafure ana Pain, or of tie
. anner how they excite it, or are Occafions of it, or
.   without feeing   to what further Advantage, or Detriment,
the Ufe of fuch Objects might tend. Norwould the
.'.  mob   accurate Knowledge   of thefe Things vary either
.. the- ifre, "or -the Pain, of the Perception; however
it might give a    rational Pleafure diflin& from  the fen-
ie; or might rie a di4i    oy, from Profpe&   of fur-
ther Advantage ivn  the Objec, or Averfion, from   Ap-
prehenfion of Evil. There is fcarce any Obje&, which
our Minds are employed about, but is conflituted the ne-
* ef ary Occafion of fome Pleafure or Pain. Thus we fhall
find our felves pleafed with a regular Form, a Piece of
Architeaure, or Painting, a Compofition of Notes, a
Theorem, an Affion, an Affedion, a Chara&er, and we
Vae confcious that this Pleafure naturally arifes from the
-ContempIation of the .jsg then prefent to the Mind,
nith al its Circumflances, though foane of thofe Ideas
(have nothing of what we call fenfible Perception in them ;
And in tho1e which  have, the Pleafure arifes from  fame
tniforniaty, Order, Arrangement, imitation, and not
the fmple Ideas of Colour, or Sound, or Mode of
* xtenfion fepararely confider'd.
aid  It penis hence to follow, that when Infiruaion, Edu-
uor Prejudice, of any Kind, raife any Defirc of
Avetfion toward an Obje&; this Dfire, or A+ei. is
founded on an Opinion of some Perfediot, orADefici-
ency, in thbfe Qualities, for Petception whereof w"Ihavd
the proper Senes. Thus, -if Beauty be defired by one
who has not the Senfe of Sight;j the Defire mut . be
ratifd by fome apprehended Regularity of Figure, Sweet-
nrefs of Voice, Smoothnefs, Softnefi, or tome other Qua-
lity perceivable by the other Sejfesi without relation to
the Ideas of Colour.
The only Pleafure of Senfe, which our Philofophets
feem to confider, is that which accompanies the fimplt
Ideas of Senfiron 3 but there are vaffly greater Plea-
fures in thofe complex Ideas of Objeffs, which obtain
the Names of fBeautiful and Harmonious The Power,
then, whereby we receive Ideas of Beauty, and Har-
mony, has all the Charalers of a Sne.  Tis no Matter,
whether we call thefe Ideas of Beauty3 and Harmony,
Perceptions of the external Senfes of Seeing, and Hearing,
or not i we fhould rather chufe to call thefe Ideas an
internalSenfe, were it only for the Convenience of di-
fiinguidhing them from other Senfations of Seeing and
Hearing, which Men may have without Perception of
Beauty and Harmuony. See PLE&StJRE, BIAtTY, and
Moral SENSE, is a Determitiation of the Mind$ to be
pleas'd with the Contemplation of thofe Acffeions, Affi-
ons, or Charadcers of rational Agents, which we call
This Moral Senfe of Beauty, in Affions, and Afefeti-
ons, may appear firange at firlt View: Some of our Mo-
ralifts themfelves are offended at it in my Lord Shafts-
bury, as being accustomed to deduce every Approbation,
or Averfion, from rational Views of Intereft. Our Gen-
tlemen of good Tafte can tell us of a great many Senfes,
Tailes, and Relifhes, for Beauty, Harmony, Imitation in
Painting and Poetry i and may we not fin  too, in Mana
kind, a Rclilh for a Beauty in Characlers, in Manners ?
The Truth is, Human Nature does not feem to have
been left quite indifferent in the Affairs of Virtue, to
form to it felt Obfervations concerning the Advantage or
Difadvantage of Adions. and accordingly to regulate its
Condud.    he Weaknefs of our Realon, and the Avo-
cations arifing from the Infirmity and Neceflities of our
Nature, are fo great, that very few of Mankind could
have found thofe long Deduaions of Reafon, which may
Ihew   fome Adions to be, in the whole, advantageous.
and their Contraries pernicious. The Author of Nature
has much better furnifhed us for a Virtuous Condua
than our Moralifts feem to imagine; by almoft as quick
and powerful Intiruffions, as we have for the Preferva-
tion of our Bodies: He has made Virtue a lovely Form,
to excite our Purfuit of it, and has given us firong
Affedfions, to be the Springs of each virtuous Affion.
SENSIBLE      horizon S    HORIZON.
SENSIBLE Point             - P4OINT.
SENSITIVE or SENSIBLE Soul, the Soul of Brutes,
or that which Man is fuppofed to have in common with
Brutes. See SOUL. 'Tis thus call'd, as intimating its
utmoft Faculty, to be that of Senfation; or, perhaps,
becaufe it is fuppofed to be material, and to come under
our Senfes. My Lord iBacon afferts, That the Senfible or
BRrute Soul, is plainly no more than a Corporeal Subfiance,
attenuated by Heat, and thus render'd Invifible i or a kind
ot Aura or Vapour partly of an aerial, and partly a fiery
Nature; endued with the Softnefs of Air, to be fit to re-
ceive Impreflions, and with the Vigor of Fire, to com-
municate its Adion ; fed partly with oily Matters, and
partly with aqueous ones; inclofed in the Body, and in
the mare perfei Animals; principally in the Head, moving
along the Nerves; and refored and repaired by the Spi-
rituous Blood of the Arteries. Sac. de Augment. Scient.
Lib. IV.
SENSITIVtE-PLAN s, a    Species of Plants, call'd by the
Ancients 2fchynomenous, and by us Senfitive, Living or
Mimic Plants, as giving fome Tokens of Senfe. Thefe are
fuch whofe Frame and Conflitution is fo nice and tender,
that at the Touch, or leaft Prefrure of one's Hand, they
will contrad   their Leaves and Flowers, as if fenfible of
the Contaa. Botanick Writers mention many Kinds
hereof; fome of which contract with the Hand or a  Stick;
others with Heat, others with Cold. The Truth is, ma-
ny, if not moal, Vegetables expand their Flowers, Down,
rc. in warm, Sun-fhiny Weather, and again clofe them
towards Evening or in Rain, ec. especially at the be-
ginning of Flowering, whilfl the Seed is yet young and
tender: As is very evident in the Down of D2anddiii, &)c.
and in the Flower of the Pimpernel, the opening and
Ihutting whereof are the Country-man's 'Wather-wifer;
whereby, Gerard fays, he foretells what Weathet fIhall

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