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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
(1728)

Secondine - series,   pp. 41-60 PDF (19.9 MB)


Page 53


C- Is ]
it.r The    - feoncomes frbm 7 rpoidi The
S1; Se  of Moa. The beltlV of thefe Kinds
ich Poe 44tes u& to chW&j itt narrow
sodewate ae; lhaped likf the End of a
ale tgeen C olour, a penetrating Smell, foft
;zG. The 'ena of friipci -holds the fecond
dnei. Its Difference frowt that of Seydi,
Colour, which- is greeni; its Smell which is
and in a certain Harfhnefs, or .Roughnefss
overs upon the Touch. Befid-es theft three
,4 and theirtl'Pbds; the Druggifis fell the
the-Bottom of theBales ; wihich is a very poor
and yet much better than what they, call the
which comes with it in the Bales, by way
nd which ! many- hold to. be . a Plant. of no
n by Chance, or, at befl, to increafe the
na, ordinarily foundinourShops, Dr.kuincy
t which iii fharpef leaved and which linells
Brightnesf .of its Colour, and Quticknefs of
are the Indications of iirs Goodnefs; for,
lod its Scenti. and grows, dusky, it is good.
'his Drug, at firi taking, is apt to nau-
iach; and. therefore, if a little Cinnamon,
"two of its diffilled Water, ble added, it-
with lefs Sickinefs. This isiexaaly conform-.
,timents of -Ludovicus, who fays, That the,
Ility of this Herb refides in its mucilagi-
ny Juice; which, the more it is divided4
isin its Operation. Rulbnduaimagined a
ality to. be -idii it; and accordingly order'd
ompofitions of that, ntention.. This is fo
edicine, that Schroder fays, Serapion firfc
al Aflembly or Council of Sentors; that isi
I Inhabitants of a State, who have a Share-
ent. Sece SENATOR.. As,. the Senate. of
*fgee  Gc. among the Ancients; the Senate
u, v eme, ui Lreuva, . Cc. among the vliodernS. l be
Senate of- Ancient Rome, was, of all others, the molt
celebrated, during the Splendor of the Republic. The
Roman Senate, exercis'd no contentious Jarifdiaion. It,
appointed Judges, either out of the Senate, or among the
'Knights  but never flfoop'd to judge any Proceres, -in a
Body. . The Senate concer;ed Mattersz of War; .appoint-
id who lhould command the Armies f.ent Governors into
the Provinces; took Ordt, 'and difpofed of the Reve-C
nues of the Empire. Yet did not the whole Soveraign
Power refide in ;the Senate. It cou'd not ele&t Magi.-
firates, make Laws, nor decide of War and Peace: But,
in all thefe Cafes they were to confilt the People. Un-
der the Emperors, when the Senate became difpoil'd of
moff of its other Offices;. they began to judge Caufes.
For Caufes of lefs Confequence they appointed particular
Judges;  the reff, principally Criminal Caufes, they
referv'd for their own Cognizance, to be judg'd by
them in a Body, and that frequently in the Emperor's
Prefence. This was to keep their Heads from State Af-
fairs. Nero further committed to the Senate, the Judg-
ment of all Appeals: But this did not hold long; nor
jdo we find any Footfleps thereof any where but in the
624 Novel. The Senate alfembled on certain flated Days,
viz. ordinarily on the Calends, Nones and Ides of each
Month. Their extraordinary Meetings were on any other
Days; when the Conful, Diftator, or Tribune, thought fit to
call them. Their P'lace of Meeting, was either the Tem-
ple of Concord, at the Gate of Capua, or in the Temple of
8ellona: The Conful prefided at the Senate. TillfAgufls's
Time, the Senate was always open'd with a Sacrifice.
But that Prince, in Lieu thereof; appointed, That each
Senator, e'er he took his Place, fhou'd offer Wine and
Incenfe on the Altar of the God, in whofe Temple they
were met;  and take an Oath, That he would give
his Vote aqcording to his Confcience.
HalicarOa eus, and other Authors, mention it as a great
Defe& in the Authority of the Roman Senate, That they
had none under their Command, to execute their Orders.
Hence the leafl Tribune had it in his Power to obfiru&
their Decrees; and hence it is, that when they gave
thejr Orders to the Confuls, and Prvetors, they did it with
a kind of Submiffion, Si eis ita videtur; If they think
fit.
SE~NATOR, a Member of a Senate. There were Two
Orders, or Degrees, among the Roman Nobility; that of
te Seators, and that of the Knights: After the Two
duneC the t~ e  The~ frirm hundred .P.nmcwer -on_-Ö. .-
y Romulus, called Patres. . Upon the Union
Sabines, Romulus, or, as others fay, Tullius,
cond Hundrcd, called Patres m7ajorum Gentium,
ilh them from a third Hundred added by the
lrit, and called RPatres minorum Gentium. The
Nuumber of Sepoors' was not f    fx'd. In the Time of &Ott
dtons they were 6o; during the Civil Wars, they were
reduced to 300. kjui$"s C fPar augmented that Number to
80o6o or. 900; and Auglufts brought them back. again
to 60oo  The Chaice ot Senators belong'd at firfl to the
Kings then to th  Corils, then. to the Ceniurs; who.
in their Cenfus or .&srvey, every five Years, appointed
new Senators it lieu of thofe dead or degraded: At
length it fell to thb Emperors. Though, for a long Time,
none were raifed Ito the Dignity of Senators, but tho1i
moft confpicuous fr their Prudence, Wc. yet forne Re-
gard was afterwards had to their Eflate, lefl the Dig-
nity lhould become debafed by Poverty. To hold the
Dignity, a yearly Revenue of 8oo Thoufand $efferces
was required, which amounts to nearly 6000 Potuids of
our Money. Half as much was required for the Knights
The Senators who Junk below this Revenue, were dif-
carded, and expunged out of the Lid by the Cenfor. The
Senators; were ordinarily chofe from among the Knights,
or among fuch as had bore the Principal Magiflratures.
At firfn the Magiflrates were taken wholly fom among.
the Senators; whence ffacitus calls the Senate, The Semi-
nary of all Dignities: But after the People had been ad-
mitted to Magiftratures; Senators were taken from among
fuch Ias had difcharged thofe Offices, though, before,
Plebeians.  The &nators carried their Children with
them to the Senate, to inform them betimes of Affairs
of State: Their Children, however, had not Admittance
till 17: Years offAge.
Some make ;a JDiftinaion among the Senators. Be-
fides 'the Senators -who were allow'd to fpeak, and were
ask'd their Sentiments, there were others, who, without
fpeaking, or being ever.asked their Opinion, were only
to follow the Opinion of thofe they thought the moft
relfonable, and were hence called Pediarii. A. Gellius
gives us another Notion of the Pediarii, and lays,
Thofe., were thus called, who having never bore the
Offce of Curule Magifdrate, were obliged to go to the
Senate on foot.
*. The Senators alone were allowed to wear the Habit
call'd Laticlavium: (which See) Had a Right to fit, and
be carried in Curule Chairs; to affir at Plays, and
Shews, in the Qrckeflra i at Feafts of the Gods, Crc. All
which Privileges were referved to fuch as 4ugtifus, (in
thee Reform he made of the too numerous Senate of
juslins Ca far) fet afide. They had the Names Senators,
q. d. old Men, given them in Imiitation of the Greeks,
who called their Senate epuwaasi. So when the Atheni-
ans affembled the People to conflilt about the Affairs
of the Public; the Officers fummoned none but fuch as
were Fifty Years Old. The Zkgyjtians and Perfians
followed the fame Example, after the Hebrews. The
Laced~emonians, and Ccarthaginians received none but fuch
as were Sixty Years of Age.
SENATUS CONSULTUM, a Vote or Refolution
of the Roman Senate, pronounced on foine Queflion, or
fome Point of Law propofed to it. The Senatus confnlea
made a Part of the Roman Law, when pafs'd. They
were depofited in the Temple of Ceres, under the Cu-
flody of the Ediles, and at lafi carried, by the Cenfor,
to the Temple of Liberty, and put up in an Armory
called l'abularia. SeeLAW.
SENESCHAL, a Name anciently ufed for a Steward;
form'd from   the Saxon Sein, Houfe or Place, and Schaic,
Governor. Thus the Senefchal of a Baron is his Steward
or Bailiff, who holds his Courts, and     manages his
Demefne Lands: Sub-Senefch-al, his Under.Steward
High    Senefchal of England, is the High-Steward   of
England: High Senefchal del Hotel di/ Roi, the Steward
of the King's Houfhold. The Ancients ufed the Term
Senefchallus indifferently with that of fDapifer, whence
we are fure it fignifies Ste-ward. See STEWARD.
SENSATION, the Aaion of perceiving external
Objecrs, by Means of the Organs of Senfe. See
SENSE.
To conceive the Manner wherein Senfation is effesg:-
ed: Obferve by the way, That all the Organs con-
fiff of little Threads, or Nerves; which have their Ori-
gine in the Middle of the Brain, are difFufed thence
throughout all the Members which have any Senfe, and
terminate in the exterior Parts of the Body: That when
we are in Health, and awake,, one End of thefe Nerves
cannot be agitated, or ffiaken, without Ihaking the
other; by reafon they are always a little fdretch'd, as
is the Cafe of a firetch'd Cord, one Part of which cannot
be flirr'd    without a like Motion of all the   refL.
Obferve, again, That thefe Nerves may be agitated
two ways; -either by the End out of the Brain, or
that in the Brain. If they -be agitated fromt without,
fby the Adion of Objefs, and their Agitation Ib not com-
inunicated as far as the Brainj as friequetly happ}s in
I Q3                    Sleep,
S.N
..JI,,L.Ai
$E N


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