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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
(1728)

Secondine - series,   pp. 41-60 PDF (19.9 MB)


Page 50


[sO; 1
g.L,,. in- Builaing, is of Twmhin4   viz. GAwtd
Sell, which is the loweflt Piece of Tinmber in a$Timber
Bualding; and, that wlercon the whle, SuPrritru&ure is
raifd; ipanid W dw4Sdk called al&:| hkk',ig,&14/4. tJ
btrtroirPiec mia Wihnow-Fr'am. Se \'ricsnow..
SlM'BAlNlSJ   a Sot of ancient Hexticks, denominatedi
from their Leader, SembiXu,ar Sembiai",. who. conde=n14
gdl, Ufe of Wine, ae Evili of iefelf j pefualedi. hix Fol-
lowers, that the Vine was ax Vrodufziona of. Satan. andl thae
Darh 5 denied the:Refurrenion of the; Dead.and resjetd
niofb of the Books of theold 'ei  %amnr. J7nt.
SENMBRAEDO',. an Engine, invented by1 Dooz W   de-
Xvcatvlk, fbr the evnly Svwing of Seeds;- dfisribed in.
tie. 'IViiofoploialc  1ra~nvfiyaions, uner the 'Title of the
?anoS' &tb'ador.. The Pte6lionTof Agriculture is ali
1owedi to confif in fetting the Plants. in ro rtionable
Spaces,. and giving fiaficient .Deprh to the lRoots, that they'
may fad,. and reoeive their neceffay o Nouriihment:
5iet is very livle Care taken. in the Pra.lice of thisuia-
portant Part of Husbandry.; but ail. forw of Grains fiiwn
1  aodfids cail ar Randoi j by which mieans Four Parts
'.~ii Five of the Seed are loft. T  reme  cthi-s In onae-
ji~ce, the Sembraior or Sowrer, i ianvented,. which. Beig
faaened! to the Plough, the, whole Bufivef& of Plowig.,
Sowing and Harrowing is done at once, the Saedscmarn's
Troalsle ftved, and the Grain fpread at equaJ Diflances,
ftd equally deep at the bottom. of he- Fwavow. Am. Ex-
perimnre  hereof was made before the Emperor leopold in
the Fields of LnxeemNurg in Actri where the Land
,aftsat y yielas fhar or fixe fod.; i blt the CXop from the
ooriP f'bwed by this h(*rument, wa.s SiXty fold, as
sppezrt by a Certificate of the Eperov's Officer, appointed
tcy fee riteExperiment-: Sip'd' Viwsa Amq? t. 1663.
A Figtwe of Phe Sembraioor, we have in the !thfaiiows,
by the Eair of C.fkiraiv.
SEMEIOSIS, in Me&dcine. See EAtGNoIS.
SEM2IOTICA, that Part of Wedicine, which confidere
the Sigms or Indications of Health ad Dikafes; and ety-
4es tir e Phylkian: oju'dge wbat is, *as, or will be the
State, Degree, Order and. E&fd of Health or Sicknefs.
See SIGA anid INDICATION J fee alfo METItClNE. The
'Word is forni'd from the Greek .2eiynrnw, of ;epgow,
SEMENTINJE FERLIE, in Antiquity, Fieafts held
annually among the Romnms, to obtaiii of the Gods a
lpnrgiful H~arveff. They were held in the Temple of !rer.
ra, or the Earth; where folemn Sacrifices were offered
to 7 te9ra and Ceres. The Time of the Celebration was
about Seed-Time, ufually in the Month of '7anuary; for
lacerobitts obferves, they were mtoveable f'eaft&. They
had theit Name from Sesier, Seed.
SEMETS, in Botany ; Dr. Grew tfes the Word for the
Apices of the Attire of llarits. See ArPcE.
SEMI, a Word borrow'd from the Latin, fignifying
Jlalf j but only ufed in CoG pofition with other Words,
as in the following Examples. The French, inflead of
Semi, frequently td* Demi.
In Mufic1 Semi has three' feveral Ufages: Firft, when
added to a Note, it exprefles a Diminution of Half its
Value, as Semi l1rtve, &c. which See. Secondly, when
added to the Name of an Interval, it exprefes a Diminu-
tion, not of Half, but of a minor Half-tone, or four
Commas in the whole Compafs. Thirdly, it iometimes
fignifies an Imperfetion. Thus Semicircolo or Circolo-
mezzo, rignifes an imperfe~ l Circle, which is the Mark
of imperfed Time, that is, of double Time; whereas,
the Circle, being a CharaEter of Perfecion, marks triple
Time.
SEMI-ARIANS, a Branch of the Ancient Arians;
confifling of fuch aF, in Appearance, condemned the Errors
of that Herefiarch, but yet acquiefred in the Principles
thereof; only palliating and hiding them under fofter,
arIld more moderate 'terms. 'Tis true, they feparated
from the A4rian Faaion; but yet could never be
brought to acknowledge, that the Son was Homootfios,
that it, confublfantial, or of the fame Subflance with the
Father. They would only allow him to be Homoioqrtos,
that it* of a Subliance like the Father. Though, as to
E" e{ion, they only differd from the Orthodox by a
lngle Letter ; yet were they, in Efaei, in the Error of the
;.A'rias; as they placed the Son in the Rank of Creatures.
it did not avail the teaching, that there was no other
6Ctature of the fame Clais with him; fince by denying
him txifkbflrantial with G(d,they effe&ually precluded him
fibm being truly God. Yet fiie, even among the Orthodox,
ufe therWord Atszoivys, in fetaking of the Son ; applying
futh an Ideato its asuit fet6s is tonfiflent with Orthodoxy.
See At IAN.
StMI-BREV9,ia Mufic a Note, or Meatfure of Time,
comprehending the Space of Two, Miniru, or Four
Crotchets, or Half a Breve.   The Semi-breve is ac-
Counted one Meafurc or Timp * or the Integer, in Fradions
S EM '
and, Mtaltipler thereof theriTme of the' other'Nte& ia
axepref~huk.  VThoathe Miniis expri*  by :' f ;f ohe
By ~, Sc. L e. lby of a MefiI~re or toSemi-, eve. A
by 2 i a Long by *  tat is, by,  Meafiures. o SemIip res
The-Ch ara4*k of the Semi .4'reve is. .
SEMI-CiRCLE, in Geometry, a Figure comprehjzred,
between. the Dinaeter of a Circle, and   the Cijpu
ference. See CGa CLE.   Two SeCi-Crcles Cati pnIY  c
each orher in one Point.
Semi- C'ircl,is alfo an Infiruiernt in sprveygl CAl.,fA
Graphoneter.. rt confi'flsofa Semi.iUlar Lii4  as '
Cgab. Surveying Fig. 1. ) divided. into, Lx84j; eg aa
Iboretimnes labdivided, Dia) oali.'y or Qtherw fe, intQi
nutea. Th~iS Limb is      adby. a Diaiaetem E G, 'at, the
Extremities wheeof are Ered  two Sights. lthi ntre
of the Semi-c   , or the M4idle of the, 1iamerer,.  .,t
a Box and' Needle. . On the fame aCntre is. t 4A fl
dade or. moveable ndex, carrying two otherSighs I 1
The whole is nwounted on a Staffwith a Ball and.Sacket.
In Effe&,, the 'Semi.circle is. nothing eCifh  t 1 b S au
Theodelite; with this only Difference, that, whereas the
Limb of the leodetite, being an intire Circle, take; irT
all the 360f fiuccefively; in the Semi circle, the Degrees
only going: fom z to rg , 'tis. ufiial to have, the rqstining
,8oe, or rho~t fro  OS0Q tO 36}00  graduatedjiiaAetc
Line on theG Lius  within the0 foruer..
TO s4ke an Angie vMitk0a'SXMI. C  CLX.
Place the Inflrument ini fich, Manner, as thattthe Radqiu
C G may hang over one. Leg. of the Angle, to be meaer'd,,
and the Centre C over the Vrtex of the iinmq. The firflk
is done by looking, through the Sights F and G at the
Extremities. of "he Diameter, to a Mark fixed up in one
Extremity of the Leg: The latter is had. by letting fall a
Plunamet from the Centre of the Isfirunan.  This done,
turn the moxveable Index H I on its Centre towards thq
other Leg f the Semi ciirc. till through tie Sights fixed
on it, you fIee a Mark in the Extremity of the Leg. Then,
the Degree which the Index cuts onr the Limb, is the
Quantity of the Angle.
Fer ffnrtber Ufis of the Sei-circle, they  "e t* faJme
uit) tlhofe of t h~e ~i~oddite. See TH ionoi. rx.
SEMI-CUPIUM, a Half Bath, whereein the h*tiet is
only up to the Navel.  See BATR,
.StEMI- DIAMETI, a Right Line dirawvifivrothe tnvtc
of a CircLe or Sphe, to its Circumference; h* farmu
with what we otherwile call Radis. See RA&rrtsiw 17h
Ditaces, Diameters, Uc. of the Heavenly Bodies, arc
ufally eatimated by Afirominmrs in Semi diameters of our
Earth. SOC EARTH;3 Seealfo SVN, PLAURTs  , :E
To find the Semi-diameters of the.Triwayy Pl7   ts in
Semi-diameters of the Earth.
Since the Sun's true Semi-diameter is Is2 Sol-Sdiameters
of the Earth; and we have the Ratio of the Diameters
of the Primary Planets to that of the Sun (See DIR-
METER T their Semi-diameters are eafily found by the
Rule of Three: Thus, the Semi-diameter of Saturn will
be found 20 .;; that of his Ring 45 7; that of 7ufiter
27 TrTy that of Mars '6'; that of renus * and 4 that of
Mercury '99. See PLANET.
SEMI-COLON, in Grammar, one of the Points or Stops,
ufed to diflinguilh the feveral Members of Sentences from
each other. See SENTENCE and POINT. The Mark or
Charader of the Semi-colon is (;) It has its Name, as
having a fomewhat lefs Efae& than a Colon, or as de-
manding a fhorter Paufe. The Ufe of the Semi-colon,
the Grammarians generally fay, is, To mark a Senfe lels
compleat than the Colon, and more complear than the
Comma; but this only conveys a very obfcure Idea. In
effe&, the precife Ufe of the Semi-colon, or what it is
diffinguiflies it from the Colon, is a Thing very little
known in the World. Our beft Authors feen to ufe them
promifcuoufly. See COLON.
Mr. Ward, we believe, is the firfi (and he in the pre-
fent Year i7p4) who ever lettled the precifr Ufe of rhe
Semi-colon. His Obfervation is, Thar the Semi.colon is
properly rfed to diflinguf  the conjunf7 AMembers of Sen.
tences: Now, by a conjunfl Member of a Sentece, he
means, fuch a one as contains at leaft two fimple Members.
See SENT EN C E. Whenever, then, a Sentence can be divided
into leveral Members of the fame Degree; which are
jgain divifible into other fimple Members, the former arc
to be fepmrated by a Semi-colon. For an Inflance: it
Fortune bear a great Sway over him, who has nicely fated
and concerted every Circumflance of an Affair; we Inmu
'not commit every Thing, without Referve to Fortune, let
the have too great a hold of us. Again, Si quantum is
agro 4c4'quedef# ertis audacia petei, ianm  n Foro arqm
7udiciis
S EtM


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