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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
(1728)

Secondine - series,   pp. 41-60 PDF (19.9 MB)


Page 46


[ -6 .
to their Infiitution: for having been warned, in  a Dream,
to dig, i* the Ground in a Place near the Compeis Afar-
gtus, called 'Tdrentum, he there found -an Airar infsribed
to Dis, or Pluto, and 'Proferpine: Upon which, as had
been foretold him  in his Dream, 'three of his Children
born Blind, recovered their Sight, and he, in Gratitude,
performed Sacrifices, on the fame Altar, for three Days
'and three Nights fucceffively. Some. fay the Place it felf
,was called larettunS, becaufe thi Water- of the Tiber
terramn terrerot, eat into the Ground in this Place.
SECULAR YEAR. See JuBILEE.
SECULARIZ      A'lON, the Aaion of Secularizifg,
or of cotnverting a regular Perfon, Place, or Benefice,
,into a Secular onIe  I Alnmoi all the Cathedral' Churches
.were antiently Regular, i. e. the Canons were to be Reli-
gious, but they have been mouf of them Secularized: 'For
i'heSecalarization of a regular Church there is required
the Authority ot the Pope, that of 'the Prince, the Bifhbop
i-of the Place, the Patron, and even thee Confent of the
*People. In France all this muft be confirmed by Parlia-
ment. Religious, that want to be releafed from 'their
-Vows, obtain Briefs of Scularization from the Pope.
; SECUNDA- AQUA,among Chymifis, &ec. is qu-d-
Jortis, which has been already  ufed- to diffolve  jine
.Metal, etc. See, AoV8Ax FORT71.   i
SECUNDARY, an Officer who acs as Second, or next
to the chief Officer ;-Such are thi&ecundaries of the Fine
-Office; the Securdaries of the Conipters, who are next the
-Sheriffs of Lotdon ^in- each of the two Compters: Secfeh-
dary of the Office of the Privy Seal; two Secundaries of
the Pipe; Secundary to the Remembrancers, which are
-two Officers in the EExchequer, &c.
SECUNDI GENERIS, in 'Anatomy, a Diflinaion
among the Laaeal Veffels. There are two Kinds of
Ladeals, viz. Primary, or thofe of the firf Kind, 'Primi
Generis; and Serundi Generis, Secondary, or of the fcond
-Kind. The Fir-'' carry the Chyle from the Inteflines
into Glands, dilperid' in great Numbers throughout the
Mefentery. The Second carry it from theke Glands, after
-its being diluted there with Lympha, into the common
~Receptacie. See LACTEALS.
SE;CUNDTNE, in Medicine, the feveral Coats or
Membranes wherein the Fetus is wrap'd up, in the Mo-
- therss Womb, as the Chorion, Amnios, the Placenta, tic.
thus call'd, becaufe-they come out in the fecond Place, i. e.
after the Child, iln Delivery.The Matrons or Midwives call
the Securzdine, The ftrer-birtb. as being efleem'd a fecond
*Butrhen, whereof the Mother is frecd. Others call it, The
'Delivery, becaufe when this is out, the Woman is reckon'd
,to be perfecaly deliver'd. See FoEtus. The Secuindine
nmuff never be left in the Matrix; 'tis a foreign Body,
'Which wou'd deftroy the Mother: 'Tis dangerous even
to have a Piece of it left behind. Hippocrates obferves,
That Twins have always the fame Secundine.
- Dr. firew, in his Anatomy of Plants, applies the Term
4Secundine to the Fourth and laft Coat or Cover of Seeds;
by reafon this performs nearly the fame Office in Plants,
'that the Membranes 'invefling the Fitrs do in Animals.
indeed Pliny, Coluinella, Apideus, e!. have uifd Se-
'undhie in the fame Senfe.
' SECURITATE PACIS, a Writ, which lies for one who
is threaten'd with Death, or Danger; againff the Perion
Who fo threatens him. It is taken out of Chancery, di-
'ieled to the Sheriff. See PEACE.
SECUTOR, in Antiquity, a Kind of Gladiator among
the Romans. The Secutores are thofe who fought againit
the Retiarii. They were armed with a Sword, and a
Buckler, -to keep off the Net, or Noofe, of their Anta-
gonil, 'and wore a Cask on the Head. Some confound
he -S'ecutores with the .~irmzillon¢es, becaufe both had
'nearly the fame Weapons. The Word is formed from
-the Verb Sequi, to follow; becaufe the Secutores ufe to
purfue the Retiarii. See RETIARII-Secator was alfo
' - Name given to fuch Gladiators, as took the Place of
otc killed in the Combat; or, who fought the Con-
queror. This Poll was taken by Lot - In Ancient
'Ifcriptions we alfo meet with Secator liribuni, Secutor
'13uCis, Secutor CGefaris, &c. who were Officers attending
the' Tribunes, and Generals; perhaps like our Aids
-de Cam
SE-DEFENDENDO; a Plea for him who is charged
with the Death of another, faying, He was forced to
do what he did, in his own 5Defenfe, the other fo affault-
ing him, that had he not done as he did, he muif have
been in Danger of his own Life. To have this Plea
admitted, the Danger muft appear inevitable. But though
the Party juftify its being done Se-Defendendo, yet he is
'driven to procure his Pardon of Courfe from the Lord
Chancellor, and forfeits his Goods to the King.
SEDER    OLAM, in Philology, a Hebrew Term, li.
terally fignifying, Order of the World; being the
Tide of two Bookcs of Chronology in that Language.
SEER
They are both very fliort,- though the one m
than the other; for which Realon the one is
Seder OlAn Rabb, that is, the great Seder Olab
the other, Sedar Olam zu4, i. e. little Sedar Olain
firfi commences at the Creation of the World, adi
down as low as the War ;of the Pfeudd Meffia
CocIbah, under Adrian, S2 Years after the Deft
of the. Temple of 7erufd e', and, of Confeque
the li2d Year of Chrifs: Tis almoil all taken fr4
Scripture, excepting the End. 'Tis the Work off1
Son of lheipeta of fipptcra, who lived in the
'Century, about the Year 130, and was Mafter
famous R. yuda Jlakkadficl', the Com piler
A.Mfjhxa. The Seder Olam Zzta is an Abridgmen
former, brought down as far as Mfar Sqtra, whi
450 Yearii atter the Deflruation of the Temple,
Years aferCthrif. F. Ah'crin, continually bent uj
minifhing the Antiquity of the Principal Books
e-ws, endtavours to prove it to have been wroo
the Year of Chrift i i24, as indeed it is expre
the Beginnigig  bat R. D.4v. Frantz has o7erthro'
Opinion in his Tefmah David, and fhewn, that thi
in the Beginning, is an Interpolation. The two (
-logies were firfl Printed at AIan'tia in  514) ,A
again, at -Bafil, by Froben, in i58o, Oaiavo: At
in 154i .rto- At Tans, with a Lati Verfion
nelprard, in YT"welves. They have been fince Pri
Amflerdam, in l 7 1 1.
SEDIMENT, the Settlement, or Dregs,.. I
Thingi or that grofs, heavy Part of a fluid Bdyv,
upon refling, finks to the Bottom of the Veflel.
Phyficians pretend to dilcover much of the Natun
Difeafe, from the Sediment of the Urine. The ';
formed from the Lagtinz Sedimeneturn,, which ADarlke
vatictis derives -a dinuiraN Sede. Dr. 'oJiod-ard nia
That at the Deluge, the whole Terrefirial Glol
diffiolved into one uniform  Mars, and that th
World arifing thence was perfectly Spherical, an(
out any Inequalities, confiding of feveral Strata,
the Earthy Sediment gradually produced, as it d
See DELUGE.
SEDRA, the High-Prieft of the Sea of Aui,
the 'Perfians. The .edra is appointed by the El
of Perfa, who ufually confers the Dignity on his
Relation. The Jurididi~on of the Sedra extends t
EfFects deflined tor pious Purpofes, over all Moliju
fpitals, Colleges, Sepulchres, and Monaileries.
ipofes of all Ecclefiatfical Employrnentr, avIDd not
all the Superiors of religious Houfcs. His Decifi
Matters of Religion, are all received as lo many
ble Oracles: He judges of all Criminal Matters,
own Houfe, without Appeal, and is, without Contr
on, the fecond Perfon in the Empire. He has not
ever, any indelible Charaaer, but frequently qu
Poil for another purely Secular one: His Autho
balanced by that of the Aioudtehite/id, or firit Di,
the Empire.
SEED, a Matter prepared by Nature, for the B
duaion and Confirvation of the Species, both in
Animals, and Plants: Some Naturalifts add, Tha
Stones, Minerals, and Metals themfelves have ead
proper Seed in their Mines, and are produced an
jetuated thereby. See MINERAL, STONE, &C.
SEED, Semen,, in the Animal OEconomy, is a white,
Liquid Matter, or Humour, the thickefi of any in the
Body, feparated from the Blood in the Tefticles, and re-
ferved in proper Veaels, to be the Means of Generation.
By Chymical Analyfis it is found to confifd almolt in-
tirely of Oil, and Volatile Salts, blended together by the
Mediation of a little Phlegm. Its Acivity Dr. Drake
takes to be derived from the Salts, wherewith it abounds,
far more than any other Animal Liquor. See HuMouR.
The Parts concerned in the Preparation of the Sei are
the Spermatic Arteries, which bring the Blood to be fi-
creted into the VPefticles; The 9ieflicles, and Paraflaal,
where the Secretion it felf is chielly effcaed; The PJ',
lDeferentia, which convey the fecreted Matter out.of the
Teilicles; and the VeficzleSeminales, which receive and
preferve it to be emitted in Coition. See each of thele
arts described under its properArticleTasTisLE,ec.
The Blood received, in finall Quantities, into theSper-
matic Arteries, and there, by the particular Struftures 'f
the Parts, much diminifhed of its Velocity, is yet farthte
retarded about the Corpius Pyramidale, or Varicoflaw, and
its redder, and thicker Parts, carried off by Canals open-
ing into the Veins. Thus rendered paler, and flower, it i$
received into the winding Receffles of the Teflicles, where,
almoft flagnating, it afrumes an Alh Colour, and is fur-
ther prepared, thickened, Cc. in the 2Dulus giighbnicrianvs
whence, flowlv driven into the Epididymid , or Tparnaflat
it is further prepared and elaborated in the Folds aint
Complications thereof, and, at length, creeps tlowly into
S E C


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