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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
(1728)

Rope - rypticks,   pp. 1031-1038 PDF (7.5 MB)


Page 1032


R.OT
(xo-r
The Rfrum was a Kind of Chapel, taken out of the Pi,
and furniffied with a Sugea   or Eminence, calld alfo the
Rofira, where the Orators fpnot.
It was adom'd, or, as Dv, Hos, built, with the Beaks of Ships
knfrom the LPeople of Antism, Vin a Naval Engagement;
whenc F2the Nae.    e RfsTtu .
ROSTRALIS Corona, ROSTRAL Crown, in Antiquity. See
CROWN.
ROSTXALIS          UROSTRAL Colmn. See COLUMN.
ROSTRI-FoRmis Proeefs, in Anatomy, the fame as Coracoides.
See CORACOIDES.w
ROSTRUM, in Chymiftry, fignifies the Nofe, or Beak which
convey the Liquor itiil'd, into its Receiver; in the common
Alembicks. See ALEMBICK, RECEIVER, DISTILLATION, &C.
ROSTRUM,. is alfo a crooked Sciffars, which the Surgeons in
fome Cafes make ufe of for the Dilatation of Wounds.
ROSTRUM litterally denotes the Beak or Bill of a Bird. See
BILL.
Hence the Word is alfo figuratively underftood of the Beak, or
Fore-part of the Head of a Ship. See HEAD, SHIP, &c. See
alto ROSTRA.
ROSYCRUCIANS, RoSICRUCIANS, or, Brothersof theRo-
SY-CROSS, a Name affumed by a Sea or Cabal of hermetical
Philofophers; who arofe, or at leaft became firft taken Notice
of in Germany, in the Beginning of the laft Century. See HER-
METICAL.
They bound themfelves together by a folemn Secret, which
they fwore inviolably to preferve ; and obliged therrifelves at their
admiffion into the Order, to a ftri& Obfervance of certain efta-
blith'd Rules.
They pretended to know all Sciences, and chiefly Medicine;
whereof they publifhed themfel thethe ResI7rers.-They pretend-
ed to be Mafwers of abundance of important Secrets; and among
others, that of the Philofopher's Stone; all which they affirmpd
to have received by Tradition from the antient Egyptian, Chal-
deany, the Magi, and Gymnofopiets. See PHILosoPHER'S-Sdthe.
Their Chief was 'a German Gentleman, educated in a Mona-
iery, where he learnt the Languages.dbfIn 1378 he went to the
Hoty-Land, where falling Sick at Dama/csr, he confuked the
eraes, and other Eaern Philofophersm by wham he was fuppo-
fed to be initiated into this wonderful Art.-At his return into
Gerany, he form'd a Society, to whom he communicated the
Secrets he had brought with him out of the Raft, and died in
1484.
They have been diflnuithied by feveral Names, accommo-
dated to the feveral Branches of their Do~trine.-Becaufe they
pretended to protract the Period of human Life, by means of
certain Naftrams, and even to reffore Youth; they were call'd
Immortales.
As they pretended to know all things, they have been call'd
lllufinati ; and becaufe they have made no appearance for feve-
ral Years, but have kept altogether incog. they have been calrd
the Invuihbe Brothers.
Their Society is frequently fignified by the Letters F. R. C.
which Come among them interpret Fratres roris cofJi, it being
pretended that the Matter of the Philofopher's Stone is Dew con-
co~ted, exalted, &c.
Some, who are no Friends to Free-Mafonry, make the prefent
flourifling Society of Free-Mafons a Branch of Rojicrucians; or
rather the Rojicrucians themfelves under a new Name, or Relati-
on; viz. as Retainers to Building.-And 'tis certain, there are
fome Free-Mafons who have all the Charadters of Roficrucians;
but how, the iAra and Original of Mafonry, as traced by Mr.
dnxderfon) and that of ReJcruciani/fm, here fix'd from Naudieus,
who has wrote exprefly on the Subject, confift, we leave others
to judge. See MASONRY.
ROT, a Difeafe, which in moift Years is incident to Sheep,
in the fame Ground, where in drier Years they are free from it;
which, yet, arifes, not only from the Moifture, but from a cer-
tain Principle of Putrefaition, both in the Air and the Grafs.
See ROTTENNESS.
ROTA. in Mechanicks. See WHEEL.
ROTA Arigfltelica, drvetle's heel, is a celebrated Problem
in Mechanicks, founded on the Motion, of a Wheel about its
Axis; thus called, becaufe firi*, that we know of, taken Notice
of by Arflotk.
The Difficulty is this.-While a Circle qmakes a Revolutionon
its Centre, advancing at the fame time in a Right Line along' a
Plane; it defcribes, on that Plane, a Right Line equal to its Cir-
cumference. Now if this Circle, which we may call the dfe-
rent, carry with it another fmaller Circle concentric with it, and
which has no Motion but what it receives from the deferent;
which is the Cafe of the Nave of a Coach-Wheel carried along
by the Wheel;, tbis little Circle, or Nave, will defcribe # Line,
in the time of the Revolution, equal, not to its own Circumfe-
rence, but to that of the Wheel: For that its Centre advances
in aligha~ine, as iat as that of the Wheel does; as being il re*-
allty the limetherewith.d
The Matter of Fqa is cei."-But tow   t Iloul  be Ihem
a Mlyftery.-'i obvious, that the Wheel advancing during the
gcdoluui mnud dkibe , Right Line eqa to its Circunife.
~~~R O.
rence; but how fhould  0th  , which fe#voe*i   theih
defribe a Right Line fo much greater tanw its C
The Solution JAvfotk gives isno more tiha a godE
tion of the Difficulty.
Gadliko who attempted it, has retodrfe to an Infiity of i
niel little Vacuities -in te Right Line defcribed by the t
Circles; and imagines tht the litde Circle never appliesi its (
cumference to thefe Vacuities; but in reality only applies it t
Line equal to its own Circumferenlce; though it appears to h
applied it to a much larger.
But 'tu evident this is all gratir difhwm.-The Vacuities are ii
ginary; and why does not the great Circle apply irsCircutn
rence to them? Laftly, the Magnitude of thefe Vacuities I
be augmented or dirninifhed according to the different . Pro
tinn of rhe twn Circles.
F. Tac:t will have it that the little Circle making its Rotati-
on more ilowly than the great one, does on that Account de-
scribe a Line longer than its Circumference; yet without ap-
plying any Point of its Circumference to more than one Pot
of its Bafe.-But this is no more allowable than the former.
The Attempts of fo many great Men proving vain; -M. d'Or.
toss de Meyram, a French Gentlem an, had the good Fortune to
hit on a Solution, which he fent to the Royal Academy of
Sciences; where being examined by Meff ke Louville and Saul-
mox, appointed for that purpofe, they made their Report that it
was Satisfa6tory.-The Solution is to this effed.
'I he Wheel of a Coach is only aaed on, or drawn in a Right
Line: Its circular Motion, or Rotation, arifes purely from the
Refiftance of the Ground whereon it is applied. Now this Re-
fiftence is equal to the Force wherewith the Wheel is drawn in
the Right Line; inasmuch as it defeats that Dire6tion: Of confe-
quence the Caufes of the two Motions, the one Right, the o-
ther Circular, are equal, and therefore their Effe&ts, i. e. the
Motions are equal. And hence, tthe Wheel defcribes a Right
Line on the Ground, equal to its Circumference.
For the Nave of the Wheel, the Cafe is otherwife.-'Tis drawn
in a Right Line by the fame Force as the Wheel, but it only
turns round becaufe the Wheel turns, and can only turn with
it, and at the fame time therewith.  Hence it follow's that its
Circular Velocity is lefs than that of the Wheel, in the Ratio of
the two Circumferences; and therefore its circular Motion is
lefs than its Recilinear one.
Since then it neceffarily defcribes a Right Line equal to that
of the Wheel, it can only do it byfing, or what they call the
Motion of Rafon.-That is, a Part of the circular Nave cannot
be applied to a Part of a Right Line greater than it felf, but by
fliding along that Part; and that more or lefs, as the Part of the
Nave is lefs than that of the Circle.  See ROLLING   and
SLIDING.
ROTA, is alfo ufed for a particular Court or Jurifdi&iofi in
Rome, eilabliffied for taking Cognizance of Beneficiary Matters,
&c. See BENEFICE, &C.
The Rota confifes of twelve Doctors, chofen out of the four
Nations of Italy, France, Spain, andGermany; three of them be-
ing Romans, one a Florentine, one a Milaneze, one of BIoulogne,
one of Ferrara, one a Venetian, one a Frenehman, two Spaniards,
and one a German; each having four Clerks or Notaries unaer
him.
Their Office is to judge of all Beneficiary Caufes, both in
Rome, and the State of the Church, in Cafe of Appeal; and, of
all Civil Proceffes, of above 500 Crowns.
They are alto called Chaplains of the Pope, as fucceeding the
antient Judges of the Sacrcd Palace, who held their Cout in his
Chapel.
The Name Rota, Wheel, fome will have derived hence,' , that
they officiate each in his Turn; others, becaufe the waft impor-
tant Affairs of the Chriflian World turn upon'them.-Ds Cange
derives it from Rota Poiphyrec, becaufe the Pavement of the
Chamber where they formerly fit was of Porphy; and fafiioned
like a WheeL.
ROTATION, RoLLtNG, in Mehanks.'&i        See    ING,
ROTA, &e.
RoTATION, in   eometr the rcumvolution or a Surface
round an imtoveable Line, cld-a 1the -xis of Rotation  bSee
Axis.
AYIS.~ ~ ~ ~ ~  ~~~~~~~~o gene - f 2i,  S>SA  ra be!0
By fuchlRotation of Planes, Solids are fornmd ornred. Sie
GENESIS,) SOLID, &c.l                       - a   S
The Method of cubing Solids, generatedby u  Ratois
well laid down.by M, at Moyvrs in''his Specims of the ufd
of the Doatrine of Fluxions.-For the Fluxions' of ifich' Solds
take the Produ& of the Fluxion of the AbfcIf  muliplid by
the circular Bafe; and fuppofe the Ratio of a Squrto  e Cire
cle infcribed, bie jas -: The> Equainepelng^ th  Ntureor@
Property ofMany Circle, who  Diaetr is d   if      '
V  herefore ,4x-x      a s th Fluxion of auo itlo~  te S  ´hre
and confa4quently, t       it fe, " *    W, ad She. r.-
Cwlbe Cs4yvzlitSdAr j~Adft
71herefohreorete -I 1in &th
A
as- d  W   40iet,


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