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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Parhelium - peer,   pp. 753-772 PDF (19.6 MB)

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b aditted to vote; nor were any to be eleaed that 'ere un-
der zI Years of Age.
That the Members might attend in Parliament with more
Freedom, they, and all their menial Servants, were Privileged
from all Arrefis, Attachments, Imprifonments, uec. for Debts,
Trefpaffies,  c. eundo, morando adpropria Redeundo; but not
from Arrefts for Treafon, Felony; and Breach of Peace.
The Place where the Parliament meets, is wherever the
King pleafes; of late, it has been in the Palace of WeftinJfer ;
the Lords and Commons each in diflinct Apartments. In the
Lord's Houfe the Princes of the Blood are placed in diflin&
Seats; the great Officers of State, Dukes, Marquifes, and
Bifhops on Forms; and the Vifcounts and Barons on others a-
crofs the Houfe; all according to their Order of Creation;
Place, ac. See PRECEDENCY.
The Commons fit promifcuoufly; only the Speaker has a
Chair at the upper End; and the Clerk and  his Afiflant a
Table near him. Before any Matters be done, all the Mem-
bers of the Houfe of Commons take the Oaths, and fubfcribe
their Opinions againf} Tranfubflantiation, Vc. which Teff, the
Lords too, tho' they don't take the Oathsare obliged to take.
The Houfe of Lords is the Sovereign Court of Juflice of the
Realm, and the Dernier Refort: The Houfe of Commons the
grand Inquei, but no Court of Juflice. See PEERS and COM-
As to the Manner of debating ad paffing Bills in Parliament;
Any Member may move to have a Bill brought in for any thing,
which, upon a Queftion put, being agreed to by a Majority,
that Perfon with others are ordered to prepare and bring in
the fame. When ready, a Time is appointed for a Reading:
after reading it by the Clerk, the Speaker reads the Abfra&t
thereof, and puts th  uefion, whether or no it fhall have a
fecond Reading? after a fecond Reading, the Queflion is, whe-
ther or no it fhall be comitted? which is either to a Com-
mittee of the whole Houfe, if it be of Importance; or to a pri-
vate Committee, any Member naming the Perfons. See COM-
The Committee appointed, and a Chairman chofen, the
Chairman reads the Bi l, Paragraph by Paragraph, puts every
Claufe to the Queflion, fills up Blanks, and makes Amend-
ments, according to the Opinion of the Majority. The Bill
thus gone thro', the Chairman makes his Report at the Side-
baro the   oufe, reads all the Additions and AmendmentsUc,
and moves for Leave to bring up the Report to the Table;
which granted, he delivers it to the Clerk, who reads the A-
mendments, Fèc.
TheSpeaker then puts the Queflion, whether theyfhall
be read a fecond Time; and, if agreed to, reads them himfelf.
To fo many as the Houfe acquiefces in, the Queflion is now
put, whether the Bill, thus amended, fhall be engrofs'd and writ
hair in Parchment, and read a third Time? The Bill engrofs'd,
the Speaker holds it in his Hand; and asks if it fhall pafs? If
the Majority be for it, the Clerk writes on it, Soit baile aux
Seigneurs. Or, in the Houfe of Lords, Soit baille aux Coi-
If a Bill be reje1ed,it cannot be any more more propofed du-
ring that Sefflion. See BILL.
Forty Members constitute a Houfe of Commons, and eight a
Committee. A Member of the Commons, to fpeak, flands up,
uncovers, and direds his Speech to the Speaker only. If what
he fays be anfwered by another, he is not allowed to reply the
fame Day, unlefs perfonally refleaed on. Nor may any Per-
fon fpeak more than once to the fame Bill in the fame Day.
In the Lord's Houfe they vote, beginning at the Puifn or
lowefi Baron, and Co up orderly to the highefl, every one an-
fwering a-part, Content or Not Content. In the Houfe of Com-
mons, they vote by Tea's and Nay's; and if it be dubious,
which is the greater Number, the Houfe divides. If the
Queflion be about bringing any Thing into the Houfe, the
4's go out; if it be about any the Houfe already has, the No's
go out. In all Divirions, the Speaker appoints four Tellers,
two of each Opinion. In a Committee of the whole Houfe,
they divide by changing Sides, the -'s taking the right, the
No's the left of the Chair, and then there are but two Tellers.
If a Bill pafs one Houfe, and the other demur at it, a Con-
ference is demanded in the Painted Chamber, where certain
Members are deputed from each Houfe; and here the Lords
fitting cover'd, the Commons flanding bare, the Cafe is de-
bated. If they difagree, the Affair is null; if they agree, this,
with the other Bills that have paffed both Houfes, is brought
down to the King, in the Houfe of Lords, who comes thitber
cloath'd in the Royal Robes and with the Crown on, before
whom   the Clerk of the Parliament reads the Title of each
Bill, and as he reads, the Clerk of the Crown pronounces the
Royal Affent or Diffent.,
If it be a public Bill, the Royal Affent is given by thefe
Words, le Roy le vent. If a private one, by Soit fait ccmme il
eft defire. If the King refufes the Bill, the Anfwer is, Le Roy
s' avifera. If it be a Money Bill, the Anfwer is, Le Roy remer-
ie fies Loyahx Sujets, accepte lentr Benevolence & aufi le Vent,
The Bill for the King's general Pardon has but one Read-
ing. The Number of Members in the Houfe of Lords is un-
kertain; as increafing at the Ki g's Pleafure. The Member
of the Houfe of Commons, when full, are 55 , viz. )
Knights of Shires; 5s Deputies for the 25 Cities, London hoy.
ing 45 I6 for the 8 Cinque Ports ; for each Univerfity; and, fi.
nally, 3 32 for I8o Boroughs, befide zI Boroughs for Wales, and
45 Members for Scotland.
PAALIAMENT is fometimes alfo ufed for other AIembliet
befide thofe of the States of the Realm. Thus we read that
the Abbot of Creyland was ufed to call Parliaments of hii
Monks, to conflult of the Affairs of the Monailery: And, at thii
Day, an Affembly of the two Temples, called to confult ol
their common Affairs, is called a Parliament. See TEMPLE
PARDI AMENTS of France, are Courts or AfTemblies efla.
blifh'd by the King, to judge of the Differences between par-
ticular Perfons, and to pronounce on Appeals from Sentences
given by inferior Judges. See COURT.
There are ten of thefe Parliaments in France. That of Oa
loufe, eflablifh'd in 1303: That of Difon, in 1476: That of
Grenoble,in 145 3 : That of Rouen, in 1499: That of Rennes it
Bretagne, in I 553: That of Bourdeaux, in I 502: That o
i&x, in I 50i: That of Aletz, in I63 3: That of Pan in .Bear
in 1519 : And that of Paris.
The Parliament of Paris is the Principal, and that whofi
Juridi 6ion is of the greateft Extent. This is the chief Couil
of Jufice throughout the Realm. It confills of fix Chambers
the grand Chamber, where Caufes of Audience are pleaded
and five Chambers of Inquefis, where Proceffes are adjudged
in Writing. See CHAMBER.
Under their fecond Race of Kings, the Parliament, lik
that of England, was the King's Council; gave Audience tc
Ambaffadors, and confulted of the Affairs of War and Govern-
The Kings, like ours, piefided in 'em, without being, at all
Iatter ot he r , e ; uto . n   n_ are ~. sies An~ .tIurno
Maiters ot their Kelolution. But, in arter l Ames, tneirJautnor-
rity has been abridg'd, the Kings having referv'd the Deci-
fion of the grand Affairs of the Public to their own Councils;
leaving none but private ones to the Parliaments.
PARLIAMENTUM Indotiorum, a Denomination given
to a Parliament held at Coventry, 6 Hen. IV. whereunto, by
fpecial Precept to the Sheriffs of the Ceveral Counties; nd
Perfon fkill'd in the Law was to be called.
PARLI AMEN TUJM IfanUm, was a Parliament held at Ox-
ford, 4rn. 4I Hen. II1. thus call'd, fay our Chronicles, be-
caufe the Lords came with great Retinues of armed Men to
it ; and many Things were violently tranfaaed therein, againsf
the King's Prerogative.
PARLIAMENTuM     Diabolicum, was a Parliametum held
at Coventry, 38 Hen. VI. wherein EdwXard Earl of March af-
terwards King, and Ceveral others, were attainted. The Ads
pafs'd herein were annull'd by the fucceeding Parliament.
PARLIAMENTUM de la Bonde, was a !Parliament in Ed-
'ward II'ds Time, whereto the Barons came armed againfti the
two Spencers,with colour'dBands on their Sleeves for Diflin;'tion.
PARLOIR, PARLOUR, in Nunneries, a little Room,
or Clofet, where People talk to the Nuns, thro' a Kind of
grated Window.
The Word is formed from the French Parler, to talk; and
hence alfo our Parlozer.
Antiently, there were alfo Parlours in the Convents of
Monks, where the Novices ufed to converfe together, at the
Hours of Recreation; but there were liflening Places over,
from whence the Superiors cou'd hear what they fa id 5 Cuch
a one there fill fubfi~ls in the Abbey St. Germain de Prez.
In the Order of Feuillans, the Parlour is a little Room open
on all Sides, placed at each End of the Dormitory, where the
Monks talk together, it not being allow'd them to fpeak in the
PARMA, among Antiquaries, a Kind of antient Buckler,
Polybius defcribes the Parma as very firong, round, three
Foot in Diameter, and big enough to cover the whole Body;
Yet Servius, on the Aneid, and even Virgil himfelf mention it
as a light Piece of Armour, in Comparifon of the CovPeus. See
PAROCHIAL, Something belonging to a Parij. See
Every Church is either Cathedral, Collegiate, or ParochiaL.
Cathedral is whete there is a Bifhop's See, or Seat, call'd
Cathedra. Collegiate, confifis either of regular Clerks, pro-
fefling Come religious Order; or of Dean and Chapter. See
Parochial Church is that inflituted for the performing of di-
vine Service to the People who dwell within a -certain Corn-
pads of Ground.
PARODY, a popular Maxim, Adage or Proverb. See PRoS
The Word is form'd from the Greek Srety' and Mr, r'a, Way,
as being trite, or paffing among the People.
PAoDY, is alfo, a poeticalPleafantry, confifling in applying
the Verfes of Come Perfon, by Way of Ridicule, to another ; of

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