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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Marasmus - measure,   pp. 498-521 PDF (21.4 MB)

Page 506

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toturfeS; but the Stones are only fet in order is tb the
Courfes, the Middle being flil'd up with Stones thrown
in at random among the Mortar. See Plate AicHs. Fig. 5.
Compound Mafrnr,, is of Vi ruvius's propofing; fo call'd,
as being form'd of all the refi. In this, the Courfes are
of hew'd Stone, and the middle Place left void, fll'd up
with Mortar and Pebbles thrown in together. After this
the Stones of one Courfe are bound to thofe of another
Courfe, with Cramp-Irons failen'd with melted Lead.
See Plate ARCH. Fig.6,
All the Kinds of Mafonry now in ufe may be reduced to
thefe five, viz. lBound Majonry; that of Brick-Work, where
the Bodies and Projedtures of the Stones inclofe fquare
Spaces or Pannels, Tic. fet with Bricks : That de Moilon,
or fmall Work, where the Courfes are equal, well fqua-
red, and their Edges or Beds ruilicated: That where the
Courfes are unequal; and that fill'd up in the middle with
little Stones and Mortar.
FREE, or ACCEPTED MASONS, a very antient So-
ciety, or Body of Men, fo call'd either from forne extra-
ordinary Knowledge of Mafonry or Building, which
they are fuppofed to be Mailers of, or becaufe the firil
Founders of the Society were Perfons of that Profeflion.
They are now very confiderable both forNunbers and Cha-
raderi being found in every Country in Europe, and con-
filling principally of Perfons of Merit and Confideration.
As to Antiquity, they lay claim to a Standing of forne
thoufand Years; and, 'tis faid, can trace up their Origin
as early as the Building of Solmon's Temple. What the
End of their Inflitution is, feems fill, in fome meafure,
a Secret 5 tho fo much of it as is known, appears truly
good and laudable, as it tends to promote Friendfhip, So-
ciety, mutual Affiflance, and Good-Fellowlhip. The
Brothers of this Family are faid to be poffefs'd1 of a great
Number of Secrets, which have been religioufly obferv'd
from Age to Age: Be their other Virtues therefore what
they will, 'tis plain they are Mailers of one in a very great
degree, viz. Secrecy.
MASQUE, or MASK, aCover forthe Face,contrived with
Apertures for the Eyes and Mouth; wore chiefly by Women
of Condition, either to preferve their Compleffion from
the Weather, or out of Modelly, to prevent their being
known. Poppea, Wife of Nero, is faid to be the firil In-
venter of the Mafque; which lhe did to guard her Corn-
pleffion from the Sun and Weather, as being the mofl
delicate Woman, with regard to her Perfon, that has been
known. Brantome obferves, that the ordinary Ufe of
Mafaques was not introduced till towards the end of the
i6th Century. The Word Mafque is alfo ufed to fignify
any thing ufed to cover the Eyes, and prevent a Perfon's
being known. Thus the Penitents of Lyons and Xvignon
hide their Faces with large white Veils, which ferve 'em
for Mafques.
MASQyE, in Architedure, is underftood of certain
Pieces of Sculpture, reprefenting fome hideous Form,
Grotefque, or Satyrs Faces, E6c. ufed to fill up and adorn
fome vacant Places, as in Freezes, the Pannels of Doors,
Keys of Arches, Eec. but particularly in Grotto's.
MASQUERADE, or MASCARAfDE; an Affetbly of
Perfons mask'd or difguis'd, meeting to dance and divert
themfelves. This is a very common Pracfice abroad, efpe.
cially in Carnaval Time. The Word comes from the
Italian Mafcarata, and that from the Arabic Mafcdra, which
fignifies Raillery, Bufloonery.
MASS, in Mechanics, is defined to be the Matter of
any Body cohering with it, i. e. moving and gravitating
along with it; and is diflinguiffi'd from its Bulk, or Volumn,
which is its Expanfion in Length, Breadth, and Thicknefs.
The Mars of any Body is rightly eflimated by its Weight.
And the Mayfes of two Bodies of the fame Weight are in a
reciprocal Ratio of theirVolumes. See MOTION,WE1GHT,
MASSALIANS, certain Seffaries, fo call'd from a
Hebrew Word fignifying Prayer; it being their diflinguifh-
ing'Tenet, that a Man is to be continually in Prayer. The
Greeks call'd them Eucbites, ma;mu, which in their Lan-
guage fignified the fame thing.  St. Epiphanius diffin-
guifles two Kinds of Maflalians, the Antient and the New.
The firil, according to him, are neither Dews, ChriJflians,
nor Samaritansf, but pure Gentiles; who owning feveral
Gods, yet adore only one, whom they call Almighty.
They had Oratories like our Churches, where they ufed
to meet, to pray and fing Hymns in honour of God; their
Oratories being finely illumined with Lamps and Flam-
beaux. This Defcription of St. Epipbanius comes fo near
the Pradice of the Eyeni, that Scalier thinks the two
SedLs ought not by any means to be diffinguifh'd. The
iayalians have gone by the Nimes of Entbufiafts, Euahi-
tes, Saccophori, and fome of them Martyrians.
I As to the other Mafjfalians, who were by Profeffion
Chriffians, their Rife was not till about the Time of
St. Epiphanius. Their Dodrine was, that Prayer alone was
fufficient to Salvation. Many Monks, who loved a Life of
Lazinefs, and were averfe to Labour, join'd the Mqaa
hians. Swe EuCHITES.
MASSATER, from mwaopAj manduco, to chew; the
Name of a Muficle, that helps to pull the Jaw upwards in
eating: It is thick and, horrt arifing from the Zygoma,
and rom the firfil Bone of the upper Jaw, and is inferted
into the lower Edge of the lower Jaw, from its external
Angle to its middle. Its Fibres run in three Diredions;
thofe from the Zygoma obliquely to the middle of the
Jaw, and thofe from the firl Bone of the upper Jaw
crofs the former, and run to the Angle of the lower Jaw;
and the Fibres that are in its middle, run perpendicularly
from their Origin to their Infertion.
MASSES, in Painting, are the large Parts of a Pidure,
containing the great Lights and Shadows; and thus, when
it is almoil dark4 we fee only the Makes of a Pidure, i. e.
the Places of the greatell Lights and Shadows.
MASSIVE, fomething grofs and folid, in oppofition
to Tendernefs and Delicacy. Thus we fay, a Wall, or
a Building, is too mafive, that isj its Walls are too thick,
or the Lights and Openings too little in proportion. A
malJve Column is that, which is too Ihort for the Order,
whofe Capital it bears.
MASSORA, a Term in the Sew/        Theology, figni-
fying a Performance on the Bible by feveral learned Rab-
bins, to fecure it from any Alterations that might other-
wife happen ; and to ferve, according to their Exprefflon,
as a He4ge to the Law, Buxtorf defines it a Critique on the
Hebrew Text, contrived by the antient jewijh Doctors, in
which they have number'd the Verfes, Words, and Let-
ters of the Text, and mark'd all the Variations of it,
For the Text of the Sacred Books was originally written
without any Breaks, or Divifions into Chapters, or Verfes,
or even into Words. So that a whole Book, in the antient
Manner, was but one continued Word; of which kind we
have fill feveral antient Manufcripts, both Greek and La-
tin In regard the Sacred Writings had undergone an
infinite Number of Alterations, whence various Readings
had arifen, and the Original was become mangled and
difguis'd; the Jews had recourfe to a Rule, which they
judg'd infallible, to fix and afcertain the Reading of the
Hebrew Text i and this Rule they call'd M'a~fora, Tradi-
tion; as if this Critique were nothing but a Tradition,
which they had receiv'd from their Fore-Fathers. Ac-
cording to Elias Levita, it was the Sews of a famous
School at Tiberias who compofed, or at leaft begun the
Mq/ora, whence they are call'd 2a.fforetes. Aben Efra
makes them the Authors of the Points and Accents in the
Hebrew Text, as we now find it, and which ferve for
Vowels. The Arabs have done the fame thing to their
Alcoran, that the MafJoretes have done to the Bible: Nor
do the 5fews deny their having borrow'd this Expedient
from the Arabs, who firir put it in praffice in the 7th Cen-
tury. There is a great and a little Ma~ora, printed at
Venice, and at Bafil, with the Hebrew Text in a diflerent
Charader. Buxtorf has written a 2daforetic Comment,
which he calls Tiberias.
MASSORETES, gewA Dodors, Authors of the Maf-
[ora. See MASSORA.
MAST of a .Foref#, the Fruit of a Species of Trees, call'd
Glandiferous, or Mall-Bearing; as Beech, Oak, Chefnut, &rc.
MAsT, a large Tree, or Pole, rais'd in Veffels, for the
Cordage and Sails to be failen'd to, in order to their re-
ceiving the Wind necefrary for Navigation. In large Veffels,
the Number of Mafls is four: Their Names are, theMain-
Maft, the Fore-.aft, the Afizen-Maj?, and the Boltrprit.
To which fome add a fifth, viz. a Counter-Mizen. The
Main-Maft, or Mafler-Mali, is the chief Mail in the Ship;
its Place is in the middle of the Velfel, and it bears the
1rongefi Cordage, and the largefl Sails. The Fore-Majf
is between the Main-Maft and the Head. The Mizen-
Maft is between the Main-Maft and the Stern. The Bolt-
fprit lies upon the Beak, in the Prow or Head of the Ship.
The Counter-Mizen, in large Veffels and'Galleons, is in
the Stern.
We alfo ufe the Word MaJf to fignify thofe Divifions,
or additional Pieces in the Mqjrs, placed over one another.
The M-ain-MaJf, and Main-Top-Maft, have each of them
two, viz. the Main-MaJf, Main-Top-Maft, Main-Gallant-
Maft; the Fore-Maft, Fore-Top-Maft, Fore-Top-Gallant-Maft.
The Mizen Maft has one, viz. the Mizen-Top-Maft. The
Word .Ma/t fignifies the fame thing in Frencb, HiMh Dutcb,
FlemiZ', and Engli. The Italians fay Maftr, and the Spa-
niards ANaflel.
For the Proportion of Majls, Sir H. Manwaring gives
thefe Rules: Whatever the Breadth of a Ship be in
Feet, multiply 4 of that Breadth by 30, the Produa is
the Length of her Main-Mail in Yards. Thus if a Ship
be So Foot at the Midfhip-Beam, 4 of 30 is z4; there-
fore that Ship's Main-Mail mull be 24 Yards, or 71
Feet in Length. Then for its Bignefs, he allows an Inch

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