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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Marasmus - measure,   pp. 498-521 PDF (21.4 MB)

Page 501

M. A R
tice~fl¢ in aiteruss Prmncgpis Marchas fen Linsites tranferundi,
tbique fugs faciendi. See REPRISALS.
MARQUETRY} tn-laid Work i a Work compofed of
feveral Pieces of hard, fine Wood of different Colours,
faflen'd, in thin Slices, on a Ground, and Sometimes en-
rich'd with other Matters, as Tortoife-lhell, Ivory, Tin,
and Brafs. There is another kind of Marquetry made, in-
iRead of Wood, of Glaffes of various Colours; and a third,
where nothing but precious Stones, and the richefl Mar-
bles, are ufed: but thefe are more properly called Mo-
faic Work. See MOSAIC.
The Art of Inlaying is very antient, and is fuppofed to
have pafs'd from the Eafl to the Weft, as one of the
Spoils brought by the Romans from fia; indeed it was
then but a fimple thing: nor did it arrive at any tolera-
ble Perfeaion, till the fifteenth Century, among the Ita-
ians; it feems however to have arrived at its height in
the Seventeenth Century among the French. Till 5 ohn of
Verona, a Cotemporary with Raphael, the finefl Works
of this kind were only black and white, which are what
we now call Morefco's; but that Religious, who had a
Genius for Painting, flain'd his Woods with Dyes or boiled
Oils, which penetrated them  But he went no further,
than the representing Buildings and Perfpectives, which
require no great Variety of Colours. Thofe who fuc-
ceeded him, not only improved on the Invention of dying
the Woods, by a Secret which they found of burning them
without confuming, which ferved exceedingly well for
the Shadows; but had alfo the Advantage of a number
of fine new Woods of naturally bright Colours, by the
Difcovery of America. With thefe Affiflances the Art is
now capable of imitating any thing; whence fome call
it the Art of Painting in Wood.
The Ground whereon the Pieces are to be arranged and
glued, is ordinarily of Oak or Fir well dried; and to pre-
vent warping, is compofed of feveral Pieces glued toge-
ther. The Wood to be ufed being reduced into Leaves,
of the Thicknefs of a Line, is either flain'd with fome
Colour, or made black for Shadow; which fome effe&,
by putting it in Sand extremely heated over the fire, others
by fleeping it in Lime-Water and Sublimate, and others
in Oil of Sulphur. Thus colour'd, the Contours of the
Pieces are form'd, according to the Parts of the Defign
they are to reprefent. This lafI is the moft difficult part
of Marquetry, and that wherein moft Patience and Atten-
tion are required. The two chief Infiruments ufed here-
in, are the Saw and the Vice; the one, to hold the Mat-
ters to be form'd; the other, to take off from the Ex-
tremes, according to occafion. The Vice is of Wood, ha-
ving one of its Chaps fix'd, the other moveable, and is
open'd and fhut by the Foot, by means of a Cord faflen'd
to a Treadle. Its Stru&.ure is very ingenious, yet fimple
enough, and will be eafily conceived from the Figure
(Tab. Mifcellany, fig.I.) The Leaves to be form'd (for there
are frequently three or four of the fame Kind form'd to-
gether) are put within the Chaps of the Vice, after being
glued on the outermofi part of the Defign, whofe Pro-.
file they are to follow'; then the Workman preffing the
Treadle, and thus holding fafi the Piece, with his Saw
runs over all the Out-lines of the Defign. By thus join-
ing and forming three or four Pieces together, they not
only gain time, but the Matter is likewife the better ena-
bled to fuflain the Effort of the Saw 5 which, how deli-
cate foever it may be, and how lightly foever the Work.
man may condua it, without fuch a Precaution, would be
apt to raife Splinters, to ruin the Beauty of the Work.
When the Marquetry is to confift of one fingle kind of
Wood, or of Tortoife-thell, on a Copper or Tin Ground,
or vice verfa; they only form two Leaves on one another,
i. e. a Leaf of Metal, and a Leaf of Wood or Shell: this
they call fawing in Counter-parts; for by filling the Va-
cuities of one of the Leaves by the Pieces coming out of
the other, the Metal may ferve as a Ground to the
Wood, and the Wood to the Metal.
All the Pieces thus formed with the Saw, and marked,
to know 'em again, and the Shadow given in the manner
already wiention'd, they vaneer or faflen each in its Place
on the common Ground; ufing for that purpofe the beft
Englifi Glue.  The whole is put in a Prefs to dry, pla-
ned over, and polifh'd with the Skin of the Sea-Dog,
Wax, and Shave-Grafs, as in fimple VANERRING, which
fee. With this Difference, however, that in Marquetry
the fine Branches, and feveral of the more delicate Parts
of the Figures, are touch'd up and finilh'd with a Graver.
'Tis the Cabinet-Makers, Joiners, and Toy-Men, among
us, who work in Marquetry; 'tis the Enamellers and Stone-
Cutters, who deal in Mofaic Work: the Infiruments ufed
in the former are moftly the fame with thofe ufed by the
Ebonifis. See EBONY. See alfo MOSAIC.
MARQUETTE; a Right or Due which the Women
formerly paid to the King or Lord, to ranfom themfelves
from an infamous Cuflom, which obliged them to pars
the firfl Night of their Nuptials with their Lords. Thi
Eflablifliment is attributed to King Malcolm or Malcolumbene
and was fupprefs'd by Malcolm Ill.  Some derive the
Word Marquette from Marc, becaufe the Fee of Marquette
was half a Silver Marc.
MARQJUISS, properly fignifies a Title given to a Per-
fon in poffeffion of a confiderable Demefne, ereaed into
a Marqugfate by Letters Patents . holding a middle PlaC46
between the Dignity of a Duke, and that of an Earl or
Count. Marquiffes were antiently Governours of Frontier
Cities or Provinces, called .Marcbes. See NOBILI TY, PEER,
According to fome Authors; the Word Marqiifs comes
from the Marcomans, an antient People who inhabited the
Marche of Brandenbo:rg. Others derive it from the Ger-
man Marck, Limit; and others from Marcifia, which in the
Celtic Language, fignify'd a Wing of Cavalry. Nicod de-
rives it from the corrupt Greek vouci¢Xpt, Province. Alciar
and Faucbet bring it from Mark, Horfe, taking a M.iarquiys
to be properly an Officer of Horfe. Menage derives it
from Marca, Frontiere; and Selden, Krantzius and Hottoman
do the fame. Lafily, Pafquier fetches the Etymology
of Marquifs from the old French Marche, Limit, or from
Marchier, to confine; the Guard of the Frontiers being
committed to them.
The word Marquifs is French; the Romans were unac-
quainted with it. In the Notitia Imperii they are called
Comites Limitanei. Alciat has flarted a Queflion, whethcr
a Marquyfs or Count Thould have the Precedence. To de-
cide it, he goes back to the antient Funclion of Counts,
and obferves, that Counts, who are Governours of Pro-
vinces, are above Marqu~./Jes, who are only Gqvernours of
Frontiers ; and that Marquiyes, who are Governours of
Frontier-Cities, are above Counts, who are Governours of
fmall Towns. He adds, that in consequence of this Di-
flinalion, the Book of Fiefs fometimes places Marqu/ffrs a-
bove Counts, and Sometimes Counts above Marqwffes.
Frozjart obferves, that the MarquiJat of Yudiers was ereded
into a County. But now-a-days, neither Marqxipjes nor
Counts are any Ionger Governours; and as they are mere
Titles of Honour, the Counts make no fcruple of refign-
ing the Precedency. King Ricbard the Second was the
firfi who introduced Marqui/7es in England; till that time,
the Frontiers had been governed byLords Marches  See
MARRIAGE, a Civil and Religious Coritra&, by
which a Man is join'd and 'united to.a Woman. The Ef-.
fence of Marriage confifis in the mutual Confent of the
Parties. Marriage is part of the'Law of Nations, and is
in ufe among allPeople. The RomaniJfs account it a Sa:.
crament. The Womnan,mwith all her moveable Goods,
immediately upon Marriage, pafges wholly in 1otejfatens
Viri, into the Power and DifpofAt of the Husband. See
WIFE, AFFINITY, DEGREE, SC. I Sanchez, bona~ina,
and Bower, have wrote on the Subjea of Marriage.
In Germany they have a kind ot' Marriage call'd Marga-
natic, wherein, a Man of Quality contrmaing with a Wo-
man of inferior Rank, he gives her the left Hand in lieu
of the right, and flipulates in the Contracd, that the
Wife fhall continue in her former Rank or Condition, and
that the Children born of them, be of the fame; fo that
they become Batlards as to Matters of Inheritance, tho
legitimate in effed: They cannot bear the Name or Arms
of the Family. None but Princes, and great Lords of
Germany, are allow'd this kind of Marriage. The Uni-
verfities of Leipfic and  1ena have declared againft the
Validity of fuch Contrads, maintaining that they cannot
prejudice the Children, efpecially when the Emperor's
Confent intervenes in the Marriage.
The Turks have three Kinds of Marriages, and three
Sorts of Wives; Legitimate, Wives in Kebim, and Slaves.
They marry the firfi, hire the fecond, and buy the
Duty of MARRIAGE; a Term     ufed in fonie antient
Cufloms, fignifying an Obligation to Marriage. To un-
derfland this, it mufi be obferved, that old Maids, and
Widows above fixty, who held Fees in Body, or were
charged with any Perfonal or Military Services, were an-
tiently obliged to marry, to render thofe Services to the
Lord by their Husbands, or to indemnify the Lord, which
they could not do in Perfon. And this was call'd, Duty
or Service of Marriage.
The Roman Laws fpeak of fecond Marriages in very hard
and odious Terms. Matre jam fecundis Nuptiis fineftata,
L.- . C. de fec. Nuptiis. By thefe Laws it was enaifed,
that the Efeas of the Husband or Wife deceafed fhould
pars over to the Children, if the Survivor Should marry
a fecond time. By the Law Hac EdiHali Cod. de fec. Nup.
the Survivor, upon Marrying a fecond time, coull. not give
the Perfon they married, a Portion more than equal to
that of each of the Children. In the Primitive Church,
the Refpe& to Chaflity was carry'd fo high, that a fecond
Mmmm mm

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