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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Marasmus - measure,   pp. 498-521 PDF (21.4 MB)

Page 499

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There are various Ways of polifhing Marble. Some lay
three or four Blocks in a Row, and with another, fix'd to
a broad Beetle, and a Handle fix'd at oblique Angles,
with Sand and Water between, work the upper Stone
backwards and forwards on the lower ones, till the Strokes
of the Ax are wore ofF; after which, they polifh them
with Emery and Putty. Father Kiecher (hews the Man-
ner of applying Colours on Mable, fo as to make them
penetrate its whole Subilance; infomuch that if the Mar-
ble be flit into feveral parallel Tabics or Planks, the fame
Image will be found on each, that was painted on the firil.
Spots of Oil penetrate white Marble, fo as they cannot be
taken out. The word Marble comes from the Latin Mar-
mor, and that from the Greek tpeadipsev, to Aine.
To marble, is to paint, or difpofe Colours in fuch a
manner, as that they may reprefent Marble. Thus we mar-
ble Paper, VWood, Lc.
MARBLED, fomething refembling Marble: Thus
marbled Paper, V.g. is a Paper ftain'd with various Clouds
and Shades, refembling, in fome meafure, the various
Veins of Marble i the Method whereof, fee under PA-
MARBLING OF BOOKS, among Binders, the fprink-
ling over the Cover of a Book with Black, by means of a
black Pencil firuck gently againil the Finger, or on a
Stick held for the purpofe. Marbling is not ufed, except
for Books bound in Calf i after it is finilh'd, the Cover is
glazed over with beaten Whites of Eggs, then fmooth'd
with a polifhing Iron. They alfo marble Books on the
Edges, but in this Marbling there is no Black ufed; in
lieu thereof, red, blue, Fc. See Boox-BINDING.
MARC, or MARK; a Weight ufed in feveral States of
Europe, and for feveral Commodities, efpecially Gold and
Silver in France. The Marc is divided into 8 Ounces, or 64
Drachms, or 192 Deniers or Penny-weights,or z6o Eflerlins,
or 30O Mailles, or 640 Felins, or 4603 Grains. In Holland, the
Marc Weight is alfo call'd Troy-Weight, and is equal to
that of France. When Gold and Silver are fold by the
Marc, it is divided into 24 Carads, the Carac-t into 8 Penny-
weights, the Penny-weight into 24 Grains, and the Grain
into 24 Primes. See CAnACT.
MARK is alfo ufed among us for a Money of Account ;
.and in fome other Countries for a Coin: The Engl Jh Mark
is two Thirds of a Pound Sterling, or 1 3 5. 4 d. and Mat-
thew Paris obferves, it was of the fame Value in II94.
The antient Saxons call'd the Mark, Mancos, Mancufe, and
Mearc; among them it was equivalent to thirty Pence, i. e-
to fix Shillings. The Mark-Lubs, ufed at HambourF, is alfo
a Money of Account, equal to one Third of the Rixdollar,
or to the French Livre rournots. Each Mark is divided into
fixteen Sols-Lubs. Mark Lubs, or Danfch, is alfo a Dani/h
Coin, equal to fixteen Sols Lubs, or twenty French Sols.
See SOL. Lafily, Mark is a Copper- Coin in Sweden, equal
to two Pence Farthing Sterling ; it is divided into eight
Roufliiqs, and each Rou/iiq into two A4eveures. The Swedi/h
Silver Mark is a Money of Account, equal to three Copper
7tarks, tho fome make it a real Coin.
MARCASSITE; a Metallic Mineral, making, as it
were, the Seed or firfi Matter of Metals. On this Prin-
ciple, there mhould be as many different Marca/ftes as Me-
tals, which is true in effe&  the Name being apply'd to
every Mineral Body that has Metallic Particles in its Corn.
pofition. There are only three Kinds int, the Shops, viz.
Marcaffe of Gold, of Silver, and of Copper i tho fome
make the Loadflone Marcajfte of Iron, Tin of Glafs, Mar-
cafte of Tin, and Zink or Spelter, that of Lead: but
this we leave to the Chymifis. Marcaffie of Gold is in
little Balls about the bignefs of Nuts, nearly round, hea-
vy, of a brown Colour without. Marcaffte of Silver is
like that of Gold, only lefs colour'd: within, the Colour
differs much, the one having a Gold Colour, and the o-
ther a Colour of Silver, both Thining and brillant. The
Marca0i'te of Copper is about the bignefs of a finall Apple,
round or oblong, brown without, yellow and cryflalline
within, brillant and fhining. Marca/ftes are found in Mines
of Metal; they contain a great deal of Vitriolic Salt,
efpecially that of Copper. Some only ufe the word Mar-
ca/Fte for Bifmutb. The Word is originally Arabic.
MARCELLIANISM, the Doarine and Opinions of the
Marcelians, a Se61 of antient Heretics; fo cafl'd from Mar-
celus of Ancyra, their Leader, who was accufed of reviving
the Errors of Sabellius. Somer, however, are of opinion, he
was Orthodox, and that it was his Enemies the 4rians,
who father'd their Errors upon him. St. Epipbanius ob-
ferves, that there was a great deal of Difpute with regard
to the real Tenets of Marcellus; but that as to his Fol-
lowers, 'tis evident they did not own the three Hypoflafes:
fo that Marceflianifm is no imaginary Herefy.
MARCGRAVE, a kind of Dignity in Germany, an-
fwering to our Marquifs. The Word is derived from the
German March. or Mark, which fignifies a Frontier j the
Marcgraves being originally Governors of Cities lying oil
the Frontiers of any State.
MARCH, the third Month of the Year, according to
the common way of computing. Among the Rowans it was
the firff, and in fome Ecclefiaflical Computations, that
Order is f{ill preferved 5 as particularly in reckoning the
Number of Years from the Incarnation of our Saviour,
that is, from the 2.5th of March. In England however,
properly fpeaking, Mlarcb is the fir{i Month in Order; the
new Year commencing from the z5th, the, in comnplai-
fance to the Cufors of our Neighbours, we ufuaily rank
it as the third: but in this refpec&, we fpeak one way,
and write another. Till the Year 1564, the French rec-
kon'd the beginning of their Year from Eaj, er; fo that
there were two Months of March in one Year, one of which
they call'd Masch before Eafer, and the orh r March after
Eajier. When Eafter fell within the Month of March, the
beginning of the Month was in one Year, and the end in
It was Romulus who divided the Year into twelve
Months; to the firfl of which he gave the N'ame of his
fuppofed Father Mars. Ovid, however, obferves, that the
People of Italy had the Month of March before Romulus's
Time; but that they placed it very differently, fome
making it the Sd, lome the 4th, fome the 5th, and others
the ioth Month in the Year. In this Month it was that
the Romans facrificed to Anna Pererna, that they begun
their Comitia, that they adjudg'd their public Farms and
Leafes; that the Women ferved the Slaves and Servants
at Table, as the Men did in the Satm ralia; and that the
Vefials renewed the Sacred Fire. The MIVonth of March
was under the Proteafion of M'serva, and alwavs confifled
of 3x Days. The Antients held it an unhappy Month for
Marriage, as well as the Month of May.
MARCHET ; a pecuniary Fine anticntly paid by the
Tenant to his Lord, for the Marriage of one of the Teiiant's
Daughters. This Cuflorm obtain'd, with fome d ffcrtnce,
throughout all England and Wales, as alfo in Scotiand, and
ftill continues to obtain in fome places. According to the
Cuflom of the Mannor of Dinover in Carmartben ire, every
Tenant, at the Marriage of his Daughter, pays ten Shil-
lings to the Lord; which, in the Briti/L Language, is call'd
Gwabr-Merched, i.e. Maid's-Fee.
In Scotland, and the North Parts of England, the com-
mon Cuflom was, for the Lord to lie the firfi Night with
the Bride of his Tenant: But this Cuflom was abrogated
by King Malcolm 111. at the Inflance of his Queen ; and
inflead thereof, a Mark was paid by the Bridegroom to
the Lord. Whence 'tis call'd Marcbeta Mulieri!.
MARCIONITES, the Name of a very antient and
popular SecI in the Church. In the Time of St. Ep'pba-
nius, they were fpread over Italy, Egypt, raleftine, Syria,
Arabia, Perfia, and other Countries. Marcion, their Au-
thor, was of Pontus, the Son of a Bilhop, and at firfE
made profeffilon of the Monaffical Life; but having had
a criminal Affair with a Maid, was excommunicated
by his own Father, who would never admit him again into
the Communion of the Church, not even on his Repen-
tance. On this he abandon'd his own Country, and re-
tired to Rome, where he began to broach his Doclrines.
He laid down two Principles, the one Good, the other
Evil. He deny'd the real Birth, Incarnation and Pafflon
of Jefus Chriff, and held them to be all apparent only.
He taught two Chrifis: One, who had been rent by an un-
known God for the Salvation of all the World ; Anothero
whom the Creator would one day fend to re-eflablifl the
Sew.. He deny'd the Refurreffion of the Body, and al-
low'd none to be baptized, but thofe who preferved their
Continence; but thefe he granted might be baptized
three times. In many things he follow'd the Sentiments
of the Heretic Cerdsn, and rejealed the Law and the
Prophets. He pretended the Gofpel had been corrupted
by falfe Prophets, and allow'd none of the Evangelifla
but St. Luke, whom he altered in many places, as well as
the Epifiles of St. Paul; a great many things in which he
threw out. In his own Copy of St. Luke, he threw out the
two firfl Chapters entire.
MARCITES, aSea of Heretics in the fecond Centurv,
who alfo call'd themfelves the Perferli, and made profef-
fion of doing every thing with a great deal or Liberty,
and without any Fear. This Dodtrine they borrow'd from
Simon Magus, who, however, was not their Chief; for they
they were coll'd Marcites from one Marcus, who conferred
the Priefihood, and the Adminifiration of the Sacraments,
on Women.
MARCOSSIANS, the Name of tin antient Sec1 in Reli-
gion, making a Branch of the Gho/iics. St.Irenaeus fpeaks at
large of the Leader of this Se&, Marcus, who, it feems, was
reputed a great Magician. le relates feveral things touch-
ing the Prayers and Invocation of the antient GnoJlics, the
antient 5ewilk Caibala on the Letters of the Alphabet, ana

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