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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
(1728)

Marasmus - measure,   pp. 498-521 PDF (21.4 MB)


Page 498


MA R
( 498 )
M AR
MARASMUS, in Medicine; an extreme Macies or
Confurrption of the whole Body. A Heaic Fever ufual-
ly produces a Marafmous. The word is Greek, being de-
rived from theVerb (vagalpiyv,to wafte. See CONSUMPTION.
MARAVEDISi a little Span ~h Copper Coin, worth
fomrewhat more than a Frencb Denier. The Spaniards al-
ways count by Maravedis, both in Commerce, their Fi-
nances, Uec. tho the Coin itfelf has but little Courfe among
themn. 63 Mara~vedis are equivalent to a Real of Silver: fo
that the Piafler, or Piece of Eight Real, contains 504, and
4 Pitol'es Of 4 Pieces of Eight, 2aoi6 Mara'vedis. See Coi N
and MONEY.< This Smallnefs of the Coin produces va~fl
N'umbers in the Spani/h Accounts and Calculations;5 info-
much that a Stranger or Correfpondent would think hirmfelf
indebted feveral Millions for a Commodity, that cofis but
a few Pounds. In the Laws of Spain, we meet with feveral
Kinds of Maravedis;j Alpbonflne Maravedis, White Maravedis,
Maravedis of Good Money, Maravedis Combreunnos, Black Mara-
'vedis, old Maravedir. When we find Mara'vedis alone, and
without any Addition, it is to be underflood of thofe men-
tioned above. The reft were different in Value, Finenefs
of Metal, Time, F~c. Mariana afferts, that this Coin is
older than the Moors, that it came from the Goths, and
was worth ten Denarii in the time of the Romans.
The Word is 1rabic, and took its Rife from the Almo-
raoides Moors, who paffing out of Africa into Spain, impofed
their own Name on this Coin, which by Corruption was
afterwards changed into Maravedis. Mcntion is made of
ir in the Decretals, as well as other Latin Writers, under
the Name of Marabitini.
MARBLE, a Kind of Stone, extremely hard, firm and
folid, dug out of Pits or Q~uarries: It takes a beautiful
Poliffh, cuts very hardly, and is much ufed in Ornaments
of fine Buildings, as Columns, Altars, Statues, &~c. There
are an infinite Number of different Kinds of Marble, u-
fually denominated either from their Colour, their Coun-
-try, or their Defeds ; fomre are of one firrple Colour, as
white or black, others flreak'd or variegated with Stains,
Clouds, Waves, Veins, &c. All Marbles are opake, ex-
cepting the white, which, when cut into thin Slices, be-
comes tranfparent. They are alfo different in Weight
and Hardnefs, and are to be confider'd with regard to
their Colour, their Country, their Grain, and their De-
feas.
Under the Genus of Marble are comprehended Porphyry,
which is the hardefi, and which was antiently brought
,from Numidia in A4frica;5 the mofl beautiful is that, whoee
Red is the moil vivid, and the Stains the whitell and the
fmalleft. See P'opP HY R Y. The Serpentine,which is a green-
i fh brown, fo call'd, becauife figur-d with little Stains. it is
form'd of a great Number of Grains of Sand condens'd 5 it
is of various Kinds, 'viz. Egzyptian, Italian, Violet, and Green.
See GR ANAT E and SERPEN TINE. 5JaJ~~er, of which there
are various Kinds, the Antient, the Florid', the Black,'White,
Lejc. See JASPER. Alabafiler, of which there are various
Kinds, both -White and Variegated. They are all foft
when taken out of the Quarry, but harden in the Air.
?Aarbles again may be confidcr'd either as Antient or Mo-
dern. By Antient we mean thofe, whofe Quarries are loll
or inacceffible to us, and whereof we have only fomre Pieces
remaining. Trhe Modern are thofe, whofe Quarries are
flill open, and out of which Blocks continue to be dug.
Marbles denominated from their Countries.
,African Marble is either of a reddilh Brown, ftrevk'd
with Veins of White, or of a Carnation, with Veins of
Green. Enghlb/ White Marble is vein'd with Red. Marble
t~f -Auvergne in france, is of a pale Red, mingled with Vio-
let, Green, and Yellow. Marble of Brabanfon in Hainault,
is Black, vein'd with White. Marble of Bre/fe in Italy, is
Yellow with Spots of \Vhite. Marble IBrocatelle, is min-
gled with little Shades of Ifabeffa, Yellow, Pale and Gray.
It comes from Tortofa in Spain, where it is dug out of an
antient Quarry: 'There is alfo another Kind of antient
flrocarelle dug near Adrianople. Marble of Carrara, on the
Coaffs of Genoa, is very white, and the fittefi of all others
for Works of Sculpture. Marble of Champagne, refemnbles
the Erocatelle, being mix'd with blue in round Stains like
Partridges Eyes. C'ipollino, or Cipollin Marble, is of a Sea-
green Colour, mix'd with large Waves or Clouds of white
or pale green. Scamozzi takes this to be the fame with
that which the Antients call'd Aguftum $S Tiberium Mar-
mor;5 becaufe difcover'd in Egypt in the Times of the
Emperors Augaftus and Tiberius. Marble of Dinan, near
Lic-e, is of a pure black, very beautiful, and very comn-
mon.,. Ma; ble of Guacbenet, near Dinan, is of a re'ddifh
Brown, Avith white Spots atnd Veins. Marble of Languedoc,
is of a vivid red, with large white Veins or Stains, and is
very corrinon ; there is fomne, whofe White borders
pretty much on the Blue, but 'this is of lefs Value. Lu-
tnacbeliU Marble, Marble fo call'd, becauife mingled with
Spots, gray, blac~k, and white, wrealth'd fomewhat like
Periwinkle-Shells, This is antient, and its Quarry is loll.
Marble of Mareffe, in the Milanezei has a white Ground
with browniflh Veins, refembling the Colour of Iron-'Rull.
This is very common, and extremely hard. Marble of
Lavoee, in Maine, his a black Ground, with little narrow
Veins of white i there is another Kind -of it red, with
Veins of a dirty white. Marble of Namur ii black, like
that of Dinan, but lefs beautiful, as inclining a little to
the blue, and travers'd with little Streaks of grey. This
is very common, and is frequently ufed in Paving. Parian
Marble is Antique, and much celebrated in Authors;5 it is
of a beautiful WVhite: The greatefi part of the Grec~ian
Statues were made of it. Varro calls it Lycbnites, becaufe
the Workmen dug it out of the Quarry by Lamhp-Light.
Marble, of 1'orta Santa, at Rome call'd Serna, is mingled
with large Clouds and Veins of red, yellow, and grey.
Marble Portor has a black Ground, with Clouds and Veins
of yellow. It is dug out of the foot of the Alps towards
Carrara. Marble of Ratrice, in Hainault, is of a dirty red,
mix'd with blue and white Clouds and Veins: this is
pretty common, but is different in Beauty. Marble of Sa-
'voy, is a deep red mix'd with other Colours;i each Piece
whereof feems cemented on to the ref'r. Marble of Sicily
is a brownilh red, {lain'd with oblong Squares of White
and Ifabella, like flripcd Taffeta's. The Antient has very
vivid Colours, and the Modern comes pretty near it. Mar-
ble of Signian, in the Pyreneans, is ordinarily of a greenifh
brown, with red Stains;5 tho this is fomnewhat various in
its Colours. Marble of Theu, near Namur' in Liege, is a pure
black, foft and eafy to work, and receives a more beau-
tiful Polifh than thofc~ of Namur and Dinant.
Marble Bigio Nero, or black-grey, is aniu. White-
veid Marble has large Veins, with grey an~ blue Stains
on a white Ground. It comes from Carrara. White Mar-
ble ; that dug out of the Pyreneans on the fide of Bayonne,
is inferior to that of Carrara, its Grains being larger, and
Thining, like a kind of Salt. It is fomething like the an-
tient white Greek Marble, whereof their Statues were
made, but is not fo hard or beautiful. Antient black and
white Marble is now very rare, its Quarries being entirely
loll ; it is divided between a pure white and a bright
black in Plates.   blue Tz.orquin Marble, is miud with a
dirty kind of whire, and comes from the Coaft of Genoa.
Marble.Fior di Peifica, comes from Italy, confills of red and
white Stains, fornewhat yellowifhi. 2'ellow Marble, is a kind
of yellow Ifabella without Veins;5 it is antique, and now
very rare. Black A4ttic Marble, is of a pure black, without
Stains, and fofter than the modern black. There was
fomne of it brought from Greece, call'd Marmar Luculleum i
but this was not fo much prized as that which the Egyp-
tians brought from JlEthiopia, approaching to an Iron Co-
lour, and call'd Bafalies, or Touch-fltone, becauife it ferved
them for the Tryal of Metals. Wbite and black Marble
has a pure black Ground, with forne very white Veins.
Marble Occbhiu di Pa'vone, or Peacocks Eye, is mnin~gled with
red, white'and blueifh Clouds, fomnewhat refembling the
E yes at the end of a Peacock's Trail. Green Marble an-
tique, is a Mixture of Grafs-green and Black, in Clouds
of unequal Forms and Bigneffes, -and is very rare, the
Quarries being loll. The modern Green, improperly cal-
led Egyptian, is brought from Ciarrara, on the Coaft of
Genoa;i it is a deep Green fpotted with Grey.
Marble denominated from its Defedls.
Rigid Marble, that which, being teo hard, works with
difcly, and is liable to fplinter, as the Black of Namur.
Thaready Marble, is that full of Threads or Filaments.
Brittle Marble, is that which crumbles under the Infiru-
ment, as the white Greek Marble, that of the Py.tereans,
&c. Terras Marble, that with foft Places in it, which mull
be, filled up with Cetnent, as that of Languedoc.
There are two Defeds frequent in Marbles, which aug-
ment the Difficulty of cutting and poliffhing them. The
one, what they fometimes call Nails, anfwering to the
Knots in Wood;5 the other, call'd Emneril, is a Mixture of
Copper or other Metals, 'making black Stains in the
Marble. The Knots are common to all Marbles, the Line-
ril only in the white.
The Stuck whereof they make Statues, Bufls, Baflfo-Re-
lievos, and other Ornaments of Architeaure, is only Marble
pulveriz'd, mix'd in a certain Proportion with Plaifler ; the
whole well fifted, work'd up with Water, and ufed like
common Plaifllr. There is alfo a kin~d of artificial, Mar-
ble, made of Gypfum, or a tranfparent Stone, refemrbling
Marle ; which becomes very hard, receives a tolerable
Polifhi, and may deceive the Eye. There is alfo a kind
of artificial Marble form'd by corrofive Tinaures, which
penetrating into white Marble, to the depth of a Line, imi-
tates the various Colours of other Marbles. Polifh'd Mar-
ble is that which, being well rubb'd with Free-flone, and
afterwards with Pumice-flone, is at laft polifli'd with
Emery, if the Marb le be of feveral Colours, and with Tin,
if it be white. Isn Italy they ~olifh with a Piece of Lead
and Emery.Thr


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