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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
(1728)

Locustae - lysiarcha,   pp. 466-477 PDF (10.9 MB)


Page 477


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other Veitels, becaufe of their Minutenefs and Tranfpa-
rency, are however exiffent in all Parts of the Body;
but the Difficulty of finding them, has prevented their
being defcribed in many Parts.  The Lympbatics are
contraaed at fmall and unequal Diflances, by two oppo-
fite femi-lunar Valves, which permit the Lympb to pafs
through them towards the Heart, but Shut, like Flood-
Gates, upon its returning. They arife in all Parts of the
Body, but after what manner, needs no great Difpute;
for, without doubt, all the Liquors in the Body, except-
ing the Chyle, are feparated from the Blood in the fine
Capillary Veflels, by a different Pipe from the common
Channel in which the reft of the Blood moves: but whe-
ther this Pipe be long or fhort, whether it be vifible or
invifible, it is hill a Gland, whilfi it fuffers fome part of
the Blood to pafs thro it; denying a Palfage to the reff.
Now the Glands which feparate the Lymph muft be of
the fmalleft kinds, for they are invifible to the finefl Mi-
crofcope; but their excretory Du6ls, the Lymphatic Vef-
fels, unite with one another, and grow larger, as they
approach the Heart: yet they do not open into one corn..
mon Channel, as the Veins do; for Fometimes we find
two, or three, or more Lymphatics, running by one ano-
ther ; which only communicate by fhort intermediate
Duas, and which unite, and immediately divide again.
In their Progrefs, they always touch at one or two con-
globate or veficular Glands, into which they difcharge
themfelves of their L'mpha. Sometimes the whole Lym-
phatic opens at feveral Places into the Gland, and fome-
times it fends in only two or three Branches, whilfi the
main Trunk paffes over, and joins the Lymphatics which
arife from the oppofite fides of the Glands, exporting
again their Lympha to their common Receptacles.
Now the Glands of the Abdomen, which receive the
Lymphatics from all its Parts, as likewife from the lower
Extremities, are the Glandulbe Inguinales, Sacrx, Iliacx,
Lumbare!, Mefenterice, and Hepaticx; all which fend out
new Lympbatics, which pour their Contents into the
Recepraculum Chili, as thofe of the Chefi, Head and Arms,
do into the Duafls Tboracicus, Jugular, and Subclavian
Veins. Thefe Glands are round and fmooth Bodies, a-
bout the Bignefs of a Hazle Nut, bigger or le.Ter, ac-
cording to the number of Lympbatics they receive. Their
Subfiance is membranous, and their whole Bulk divided
into little Cells, which receive the Lympb from the Lym-
pbatics; and are therefore improperly call'd Glands, be-
caufe they feparate no Liquor from the Blood: It is
true, that their exporting Lymphatics, communicating
with their Arteries, do receive a Lymph from them; but
this is done without the help of conglobate Glands ; as
the ladeal Veins do with the capillary Arteries of the
Guts : the chief Ufe of their veficular Bodies feems
to be, that the flow-moving Lympha may receive a grea-
ter Velocity from the elallic Contraaion of their mem-
branous Cells, as well as from the new Lymph imme-
diately derived from the Arteries. See Gland.
LYRA, or LYRE, the fame with Citbara, a Harp; a
fringed Infirument much ufed among the Antients; faid
to have been invented by Mercury, on occafion of his find-
ing a dead Shell-Fifli, call'd by the Greeks Chelone, and
the Latins Tejfixdo, left, on an Inundation of the Nile; of
the Shell whereof he form'd his Lyre, mounting it with
feven Strings, according to Lucian, and adding a kind of
3ugr   to it, to firetch or loofen the Strings. Boethim re-
L YS
latesthe Opinion of fome, who fay that Mercury's Lyre
hrd but four Strings, in imitation of the Mundane Mufic
of the four Elements. Liodorms Sicidus fays it had but three
Strings, in imitation of the three Seafons of the Year;
which were all the Greeks counted, viz. Spring, Summe~r
and Winter. Nicomacbus, Horace, Luctan,and others,make
it have feven Strings, in imitation of the feven Planets.-
This three, four, or feven-firinged Infirument Mercury gave
to Orpbeus; who being torn to pieces by the iaccbanals, the
Lyre was hung up by the Lcsbians in 4pollo's Temple. O-
thers fay, Pythagoras found it in fome Temple in Egypt
and added an eighth String. Nicomackus fays, that when
Orpheus was kill'd, his Lyre was cafl into the Sea, and
thrown up at A4nt ha a City of Lesboss; where the Fifhers
finding it, gave it to Terpander; who carried it into Fgypr,
and call'd himfelf the Inventor. The feven Strings were
diatonically difpofed by Tones and Semi-Tones, and Py-
tbagoras's eighth String made-up the Oaave.
From the Lyra, which all agree to be the firfl Inflru.
ment of the firinged kind in Greece, arofe an infinite
Number of others, differing in Shape and Number of
Strings; as the Pfalterium, Trigon, Sambuca, Penis, Magadis,
Barbiton, Teftudo, (the two laft ufed promifcuoufly by Ho-
race with the Lyra and Cithara) Epigonium, Simmicium and
Pandura; which were all firuck with the Hand or a Plec-
trum.
The Lyra among Painters, Statuaries, &c. is an Attri-
bute of Apollo and the Mufes.
Lyra is alfo a Confiellation in the Northern Hemi-
fphere, confifling of thirteen Stars. See Star.
LYRIC; fomething fung, or play'd on the Lyre or
Harp. The Word is particularly applied to the antient
Odes and Stanza's; which anfwer to our Airs or Tunes,
and may be play'd on Infiruments. The Antients were
great Admirers of Lyric Verfes, which Name they gave to
fuch Verfesas do not come under either of the two ordina-
ry Kinds of Verfe, viz. Hexameters and Iambics. Thefe
were principally ufed in Odes, and in the Chorus's of Tra-
gedies. The Charadferiflic of Lyric Poetry, and that which
diflinguiffies it from all others, is Sweetnefs. As Gravity
rules in Heroic Verfe, Simplicity in Pafloral, Tendernefs
and Softnefs in Elegy, Sharpnefs and Poignancy in Satire,
Mirth in Comedy, the Pathetic in Tragedy, and the Point
in Epigram; fo in the Lyric, the Poet applies himfelf
wholly to footh the Minds of Men by the Sweetnefs and
Variety of the Verfe, and the Delicacy of the Words and
Thoughts, the Agreeablenefs of the Numbers, and the
Defcription of Things moil pleafing in their own Nature.
See Ode, Song, &c.
LYSIARCHA, the Name of an antient Magifirate or
Pontiff of Lycia. Strabo obferves, that the L fiarcba was
created in a Council, confiuling of the Deputies of twenty-
three Cities, that is, of all the Cities in the Province;
fome of which Cities had three Voices, others two, and
others but one. Cardinal Noris fays, that the Lyfiarcba
prefided in Matters of Religion; in effe&, the Ljfiar-
cba was nearly the fame with the .fiarc7sa and Syriarcba;
who, tho they were all the Heads of the Councils or
States of thofe Provinces, yet were they efilablifh'd prin-
cipally to take care of the Games and Feafis celebrated
in honour of the Gods, whofe Priefis they were inaugu-
rated at the fame time that they were created Lyfarcha,
Syriarcba, or Afiarcha.
Ffffff
L Y R
M,


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