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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Locustae - lysiarcha,   pp. 466-477 PDF (10.9 MB)

Page 472

LON                      ( 4g
To find the Longitude or Latitude of any Star by the
Globe: Bring the Sollfitial Colure to the Brafs Meridian,
and there ix the Globe; then will the Pole of the E-
cliptic be jufl under 23 deg. 30 min. accounted from the
Pole above the Horizon, and on the fame Meridian: There
fcrew the Quadrant of Altitude, bring its graduated Edge
to the Stari and there flay it 3 thus the Quadrant will cut
the Ecliptic in the Star's Lo;0gitude, as alfo its Latitude
reckoned on the Quadrahti from the Ecliptic. See Globe.
Longitude of Motion) is a Term  ufed by Dr. Wallis in
his Mechanics, for the Meaf re of Motion eflimated ac-
tording to the Line of Diredion; fo that it is the Di-
fiance, or Length, which the Center of any moving Body
runs thro, as it moves on in a Right Line. And he calls
the Meafure of any Motion, ellimated according to a
Right Line or Line of Diredion of the Fis Motrix, the
Altitude of it.
Bellini alfo ufeth this Terrt of Longitude and Altitude
in the fame Senfe in many Places of his Writings, and
which an ordinary Reader finds hard to underfiand for
want of this Interpretation. By Altitude alfo, in his i9th
Propofition de Febribus, he means the Thicknefs of the
vifcid Matter in the Blood-Veffels ? or the greaten
Length a vifcid Particle is extended into from the fide
of the Canal to its Axis.
LONGITUDINAL, according to the Etymology of
the Word, fignifies fomething extended length-wife. Thus
in Anatomy it is ufed to fignify fome Part or Member
running in length, or pofited length-wife. The Mem-
branes that compofe the Veifels are woven out of two
kinds of Fibres, the one Longitudinal, and the other Cir-
cular, cutting the Longitudinal at Right Angles. The
Longitudinal are tendinous and elaflic; the Circular, muf-
culous and motrices, like Sphincters.
LONGUS COLLI, a Mufcle which arifes chiefly
fleihy, tho partly tendinous, from the fore-part of the
five upper Vertebra: of the Back, and is inferted into the
fore-part of every Vertebra of the Neck. Its Ufe is to
bend the Neck forward.
LONGUS CUBITI, a Mufcle, that, in conjundion
with others, extends the Cubitus: It arifeth from the in-
ferior Coila of the Scapula, nigh its Neck, and pafreth
betwixt the two round Mufcles. It defcends on the back-
fide of the Humerus, where it joins with the Brevis and
Bracbiheus extermus.
LONGUS FEMORIS, in Anatomy. See Sartorius.
LOOF, or, as they ufually pronounce it, Luf, isaTerm
ufed in Conding of a Ship  Thus, Loof up, is to bid the
Steerf-man keep nearer to the Wind: To loof into an
Harbour, is to fail into it clofe by the Wind: To firing
she Luff, is when a Ship, that before was going large be-
fore the WVind, is brought clofe by the Wind. When a
Ship fails on a Wind, that is, on a Quarter-Wind, they
fay to the Steerf-man, Keep your L uf! Veer no more! Keep
her to! Touch the Wind! Have a care of the Lee-Latch ! All
which Words fignify much the fame thing, and bid the
Man at Helm to keep the Ship near the Wind.
Loef of a Ship, is that part of her aloft, which lies jufi
before the Chefs-Trees; and hence the Guns, which lie
here, are called her Loof-Pieces.
LOOKING-GLASS, a plain Glafs, Speculum, or
Mirror, which being impervious to the Light, refledts its
Rays, and fo exhibits the Images of Objecs placed be-
fore it.
The Theory of Looing-Glaf/es, and the Laws whereby
they give the Appearances of Bodies, fee under Mirror.
The Manner of grinding and preparing the Looking-Glaf-
Jes is as follows: A Plate ofGrafs is fixed to a hori-
zontal Table, and to another lefs Table is fixed an-
other Plate, over the hind Part of which is added a Box
loaded with Stones and other Weights. Over the firft
Plate is fprinkled fine Sand and Water in a fulficient
Quantii'y for the Grinding, and the fecond or lefs Plate is
laid on it, and thus worked this and that way, till each
has planed the others Surface.  As they begin to grow
fmoother, finer Sand is ufed, and at laff Powder of Smelt.
Being thus fit for polishing, a wooden Parallelopiped, lined
with Tripoli Earth, or burnt Tin, tempered with Water,
is laid on the Plate, and worked to and again, till the
;lafs have got a perfea Politure.
'Tis found extremely difficult to bring the Glafs to a
perfe& Plainnefa. Hevelius judges more Art required to
bring a Glafs toanexad Plane than to a Sphere. For po-
lilhing large Plates of Glafs, they have a Machine for
the purpofe.
The Plates being thus polilbed, a thin blotting Paper
is fpread on a Table, and fprinkled with fine Chalk ; and
this done, over the Paper is laid a thin Lamina, or Leaf
of Tin, on which is poured Mercury, which is to be equal.
ly difiributed over the Leaf, with a Hare's Foot or Cot-
ton. Over the Leaf is laid a clean Paper, and over that
7Z)                   LOR
the Glafs-Plate. With the left Hand the Glars-Plite is
preffed down, and with the right the Paper is gently
drawn out; which done, the Plate is covered with a
thickerPaper, and loaden with a greater Weight, that
the fuperfluous Mercury may be driven out, and the Tin
adhere more clofely to the Glafs. When it is dried, the
Weight is removed, and the Looking-GlaJs is compleat.
Some add an Ounce of Mercury to half an Ounce of
Marchafite, melted by the Fire ; and lef the Mercury
evaporate in Smoke, pour it into cold Water, and, when
cold, fqueeze it thro' a Cloth or Leather. Some alfu
add a Quarter of an Ounce of Lead and Tin to the Mar-
chafite, that the Glafs may dry the fooner,
LOOM, the Weaver's Frame; a Machine whereby fe-
veral diflincf Threads are wove into one Piece. Looms
are of various Struaures, accommodated to the various
Kinds of Materials to be wove, and the various Manners
of weaving them; 'viz. for Woollens, Silks, Linnens, Cot-
tons, Cloths of Gold; and other Works, as Tapeflry,
Ribbands, Stockings, &fc. Molt of which will be found
under their proper Heads.
LOOP-HOLES, in the Sea-Language, are Holtes made
in the Comings of the Hatches of Ships, and in their
Bulk-heads to fire Muskets thro in a clofe Fight. And
the fame are they in the Covert Defences of all Fortifi-
LORD, (from a Saxon Original, fignifying a Bread.
Giver, Bountiful or Hofpitable) is a Title of Honour va-
rioully applied amongfi us; being fometimes attributed
to thofe who are noble by Birth or Creation, otherwife
call'd Lords of Parliament, and Peers of the Realm ;
Sometimes to thofe fo call'd by the Courtefy of England,
as all Sons of a Duke and Marquifs, and the eldeil Son
of an Earl: fometimes to Perfons honourable by Office,
as Lord Chief 5fuJfice, &c. And fometimes to an inferior
Perfon that has Fee, and confequently the Homage of
Tenants within his Mannor; for by his Tenants he is
call'd Lord, and in fome Places, for diflinaion fake,
Land-lord. 'Tis in this lafi Signification that the word
Lord is principally ufed in our Law-Books; where it is
divided into Lord Paramount and Lord MeWn: Lord Mdefis
is he that is Owner of a Mannor, and by virtue thereof
hath Tenants holding of him in Fee, and by Copy of
Court-Roll; and yet holds, himfelf, of a fuperior Lord,
call'd Lord Paramount, or above him. We alfo read of
Very Lord and Fery Tenant: Very Lord is he who is im-
mediate Lord to his Tenant; and Very Tenant, he who
holds immediately of that Lord: fo that where there is
Lord Paramount, Lord Mefn, and Tenant; the Lord Para..
mount is not Very Lord to the Tenant. He is alfo call'd
Lord in Grofi.
Lord-High-Admiral of England, is one of the great Of-
ficers of the Crown, whofe Trufi and Honour is fo great,
that it has feldom been given, excepting to fome of the
King's younger Sons or near Kinfmen. Tfo him is, by the
King, intruded the Management of all maritime Affairs,
as well in refped of Jurifdicaion as Protedion. He is
that high Officer or Magifirate, to whom is committed
the Government of the Briti/ Navy, with Power to de-
cide all Controverfies, and Caufes Maritime, as well Ci-
vil as Criminal, for which there is a peculiar Court fuch
as happen either on our own Coalts, or beyond Sea, a-
mongfi his Majefly's Subjeas: and of fuch Wrecks and
Prizes, as are called Lagon, Setfon, and Flotfon ; that is,
Goods lying in the Sea floating, or cafi on fhore, except-
ing in fuch Royalties as are granted to other Lords of the
Mannor, eic. All great Fifhes, call'd Royal ifik, except
Whales and Sturgeon: A Share of Prizes in time of
War, and the Goods of Pirates and Felons condemned.
The Lord-High-Admiral hath under him many Officers of
high and low Condition; fome at Sea, others at Land ;
fome of a Military, others of a Civil Capacity: fome
Judicial, others Miniflerial. And in his Court all Proceffes
iffue in his Name, not the King's, as it does in all other
Courts; fo that the Dominion and Jurifdicion of the Sea
may jufily be filed another Commonwealth, or King-
dom apart, and the Lord-FHieb-/dmiral, Viceroy of the
Maritime Kingdom. He hath under him a Lieutenant,
who is Judge of the Admiralty, commonly a Dodor of
the Civil Law; the Proceedings in this Court in all Civil
Matters, being according to the Civil Law: but in Cri-
minal Matters, they proceed by a Special Commiflion
from the Secretary, according to the Laws of England.
Lord-Privy-Seal, hath his Office by Patent: before
the 3oth of Henry VIII. they were generally Ecclefiaf-
ticks; fince which, the Office hath been ufually confer'd
on Temporal Peers, above the Degree of Barons. Under
the Privy-Seal paifeth all Charters and Grants of the
Crown, and Pardons fign'd by the Sovereign before they
have the Great-Seal ; as alfo feveral other Matters of
lefs Concern, as the Payment of M1oney, c. which, have

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