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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

X,   p. 383 PDF (697.8 KB)

Page 383

XE383 I
x&Y S
A double Conronant, and the twenty-fecond
x        Letter in the Engltib Alphabet. See LETTER,
The x of the Latins, and & of the Greeks are
compounded of c s, and x a; whence, to this day, the
Letter x in the EngliJb and French has the fame Sound with
c s or k s.-  Thus we pronounce Alevander, as if wrote
,4lecjander or Alekfander. See C, K, S, &c.
The Italians bave no x at all in their Language; but,
both fpeak and write Ale/fndro-The Spaniards pro-
nounce the x like our c before a; viz. Alexandro, as if it
were Alecandro. The 9Portugueze pronounce it like our lb.
In foreign Words ufed in Englijb we fometimes foften
the x into a double s; as Rrutffels for BRruxelles, &c.
The Letter is not known in the Hebrew, or other Oriental
Languages; but in lieu of it they write the two fimple
Letters whereof it is compounded- And the like do the
modern Germans.
X is alfo a numeral Letter, and fignifies ten; as repre-
fenting two V's placed one a-top of the other. See V.
X Supra denos numero tibi dat retinendos.
When a Dalh is added over it, X, it fignifiestcnthoufand.
XENIA, in antient Cufloms, were Gifts or Prefents
made to the Govcrnours of Provinces by the Inhabitants
The Word occurs pretty frequently in Charters of Privi-
leges ; where, £juictos effie a Xeniis, denotes an Exem-
ption from making fuch Prefents to Kings and Queens upon
their travelling through fuch Precintis. See MUNUS, EC.
XENODOCHUS, an Ecclefiatlical Officer in the Greek
Church ; the fame with Ioffpitaller, or a Perfon who takes
care of the Reception and Entertainment of Strangers. See
1losP IT ALIE R.
St. Ifidore, a Priefl: and Solitary, furnamed the Xenodo-
chis, liv'd in the 1Vth Century- He was thus call'd,
becaufe entruiled with that Office in the Church of .Alex-
and ria.
XEROPHTHALMIA, a kind of Ophthalmia, wherein
the Eyes itch, and are red, but without fwelling or watering.
The Word is compounded of Vnpor, dry, and ocb0Jk*,
the ufe of dried Foods. See FOOD.
In the fir{} Ages, fome not contented with fimple Fafling,
added the Xcrophagy thereto; abfiaining not only from
Flefh and Wine, but alfo from all frefh,fucculent, and vinous
Fruits- And fome even brought themfelves to bare
Bread and Water. See FASTING and ABSTINENCE.
ffertullian in his Book de Abflinentia, c. 9. fpeaks of the
Xerophagia as a thing commendable in time of Perfe-
cut ion.
The Word is form'd from  npls, ficcus, dry, and  Zy&,0
I eat.
XESTA, -=ISI, an Attic Meafure of Capacity. See
XIPHIAS, a iery Meteor, in form of a Sword. See
It difers from the Acontias, in that this latter is longer,
and more like a Dart; and the former fhorter and broader
in the middle. See ACONT1AS.
XV.VIR, Qyindecimvir; fee QULNDECIMVIR.
Authors, and efpecially the Antiquaries, make ufe of
fuch Abbreviations, which they borrow from Medals, and
other Monuments of Antiquity, where thofe Names are fo
XYLO-ALOES, in Medicine, Wc. the Lignum Aloes:
call'd alfo Agillochum. See ALOES and AGILLOCHUM.
The Word is compounded of EwAov, Lignum, Wood, and
vAon, Aloes.
XYLO-Balfamum, a Name which Naturalifls, &c. give
to the Wood of the Tree which yields that precious Gum
known to the Latins by the Name of Opo-Balfamum, and
among us by the Name of almofGilead. See BALM.
We have Branches of this Tree brought us from Cairo.
They are very fireight, brittle, unequal, and full of Knots;
their Bark reddifsh without, and greenilh within. The
Wood is whitifh, and full of Pith, and when broke, yields
an agreeable fmell refembling that of the Balm.
The Xylo-balfamum is reputed good to fircngthen the
Brain, and Stomach, and to expel Poifon.
The Word is compounded of {uAov, Wood, and
Balfam, Balm.
XYNOECIA      a Feaff among the antient Athenians, in-
flituted on occadon of 7Thefeus's uniting all the petty Com-
munities of Attica into one Common-wealth ; the Aigemblies
whereof were to be held at Athens, in the Pr~ytangum.
The Word is form'd of the Greek ESlv or apt with, and
obXes, I inhabit.
XYPHOIDES, in Anatomy, a Cartilage at the bottom
of the Sternum; call'd alfo Enfiformis. See CARTILAGE
It is about an Inch long, and Ihiped like the Point of a
Sword ; whence its Appellation, from (huf6, Sword, and
c-,pJ-, Figure. See STERNUM.
XYSTARCHA, in Antiquity, the Mafler or Direaor of
the Xyftus. See XYSTus.
In the Greek Gymnafitim, the Xyflarcha was the fecond
Officer-The firfi was the Gymnafiarcha.
The Xyflarcha was his Lieutenant, and prefided over the
two Xyfli, and all Exercifes of the Athlete therein. See
XYSTUS, in the antient Architecure--.    A Xyftus,
among the Greeks, was a long Portico, either open, or co-
ver'd over; wherein the Athlete pracfifed Wrefiling, and
The Gladiators who pradifed therein, were call'd
Xyftici. See GLADIATOR.
Among the Romans, the Xyflus was only an Alley, or
double Row of Trees, meeting Arbor-wife a-top, and
forming a Shade to walk under.
The Word is Greek, Iuv'os, form'd of {u'en', to polilh,
thave, rub.

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