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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
(1728)

P - pargeting,   pp. 733-752 PDF (19.4 MB)


Page 733


( 733 )
PAC
A Confonant, and the fifteenth Letter in the Englfb  at
NJ     Alphabet. See LETTER, CONSONANT, E&c.             Si
When the P is follow'd with an H  in the fame Mi
CI Word, it has the Sound of an F; thus, Phifophy is i
pronounced Filofophy.                            it
P and i are Co like each other, that £!tfintilian declares, M
that in the Word obtinuit, his Reafon required him to put a b,Z
but that his Ears could hear nothing but ap, oPtinuit: Hence
in ancient Infcriptions, and old G~iofaries, it appears, thefe tc
two Letters have been often confounded. See ff.           C
Several Nations f[ill pronounce one for the other, the Ger- v'
mans particularly, who fay, ponum vinum for bonum vinum. C
Plutarch obferves, it was ufual for thofe of Delphos to fay ta
eTHi tur =THPT, 1'8 Aix( for m'ZC 5; and among the Latins, as of  at
ten as an S followed,the b was changed into a P, asfcribo,fcripfi. 1i
P in the Italian Mufic frequently reprefents piano; which  ci
is what in our Mufic we calljo/i, i. e. the Force of Voice, or
Inllrument,are to be dimrinilh'd,fo as tormake a Kind of Eccho. P
P P fignifies pin piano, i. e. morejoft, or a fecond Eccho
weaker or more remote than the former: and P P P figni- t'
fies pianiJfino fofteft of all, or a third Eccho, the Voice being, I
as it were, loft in the Air.
P. M. among Aflronomers is frequently ufed for poji meri-
diem, or Afternoon; and Sometimes for Po]? mane, after the v
Morning, i. e. after Midnight. See MORNING.
P was alfo ufed among the Ancients as a Numeral Letter,
fignifying the fame with the G. viz. an hundred3 according c
to the Verfe of Ugution.
P fimilem cum G numerum moniftratur habere.        I
Tho' Baronius thinks it rather flood for feven. See what i
has been obferv'd, with refped to thefe Numeral Letters in
general, under the Letter A.
When a Dafh was added a-topp, a, it flood for four hun-
dred Thoufand.
St. .7erom obferves, on Daniel, that the Hebre-a's had no P,
but that the phferv'd 'em inflead thereof Adding, that thereis
but one Word in the whole Bible read with a P, viz. apadno.
P, in Prefcription, is ufed for Pugil, or the eighth Part of a
Handful. See PUGIL.
P. E. fignifj' Partes.Equales, equal Parts of any Ingre-
dients; otherwise denoted by a or ana. See ANA.
P  P fignify Ptlvis Patrum, i. e. .7e~fait's Powder, or the
Cortex in Powder; which is fo calledbecaufe firil brought into
.Enrcpe by thofe Fathers. See CORTEX.
PABULUM is fometimes ufed among Naturalifls for Fuel-
or that Part in combuftible Bodies, which the Fire immedi-
ately teeds on, or is fupported by. See FIRE.
'Ihe oily or fulphurous Part of Fuels is the only proper Pa-
bulumn. 'I'is that alone, whereinFirecan inhere. See FUEL,
S ULP 11 UR, S'C.
PACALIA, a Feafl held among the ancient Romans, in
Honour of the Goddefs Pax', Peace.
Aldbelmts, de Lata. Virgin. and Bibl. Patrtwi,fpeaking of
the impure Fefiivals and Ceremonies of the Heatlens, calls
one of 'em TPanakia, which Paffage Gronovius charges as faulty
alledging, that there was no Feafl of that Name, but that it
fhould have been Pacalha.
The Ancients, who perfonified, and even deified every
Thing, were not forgetful of Peace. She had an Altar at Rome,
and a fately Temple, and religious Rites were paid her with
great Solemnity.
PACE, Paddus, Step, a Meafure, taken from the Space be-
tween the two Feet of a Man, in walking. See ME ASURE.
The ordinary Pace of a Man is two Foot and a Half. The
Geometrical or German Pace is five Feet. See FOOT.
The Ancient, Roman, and modern Italic Mile confils of
a thottfand Paces, Mille Paffus. The French League is 3000
Paces, the German 4000. See MILE, LEAGUE, SC.
PACEin the Manage, is a certain Manner of Motion or Pro-
grefflon of a Horfe.
The Natural Paces of a Horfe are three, viz. the Walk,
91rot, and Gallop, to which may be added an Amble; becaufe
fome Horfes have it naturally. See each under its proper Ar-
ticle, TROT, GALLOP, ec.
For the artificial Paces, fee AIRS.
Horfes that mix their Paces, i. e. fhuffle betwixt a Walk and
Amble, Fc. are feldom of any Value. The Defeb proceeds
from their fretful, fiery Temper; and Sometimes from a Weak-
nefs either in their Reins or Legs.
PACE is more particularly underflood of that eafy low Mo-
tion wherein the Horfe raifes the two Feet diametrically op-
polite at the fame time ; call'd alfo Amble. See AMB LE.
PACIFIC, Something peaceful, or free from Troubles, Tu-
niulto, U~c See PEACEABLE.
Geogphers call the South Sea, Mare Paciifaim, the Paci-
fic Ocean; as being legs infefed with Storms than the Atlan-
tic.  M. Frzier afirms, it does not deferve that Appellation,
id that he has feen as violent Tempefils therein as in any other
,a: But Magellan, happening to have a very favourable
Tind, and not meeting with any thing to ruffle him, when he
rfl traverfed this vail Ocean in 1 5 20. gave it the Name, which
has retained ever fince.  Alaty, however, adds, that the
Tind is fo regular, that the VeTeels wou'd frequently go from
lcapulco to the 'Philippine Iflands, without Ihifting a Sail.
In the ancient Church, they gave the Name Pactjiec Letters
iall Sorts of Letters Teflimonial, given by the Bithop or
;horepifcopus to their Priefis when they had occafion to tra-
el abroad, certifying that the Bearer was a Catholic, and in
ommunion with the Church. The Life of Pope Sextus I.
Lken from the Pontifical of Pope Damafus, mentions that Pope
S. the firfi who introduced thofe Letters call'd Formats or Ca-
onicge, Commendatitid, Communicatorie, ECclefiajiice, ei Pa-
f'zce.
PACIFICATION the Aa of Re-eflablifhing the public
Peace and Tranquillity.
The Word is particularly appropriated to the Periods put to
he Religious Broils rais'd in Prance, in the Year 156z, by the
Edidt of Nantz ; and the Civil Commotions, between the En-
!lifb and Scots, ended in I636. See EDICT.
PACIFICATOR is commonly underifood in the fame Senfe
vith Mediator: But cicquejbrt makes a Difference.
The Peace being concluded between France and Enigland,
n I6rI. the Infiruments on each Side were put in the Hands
)f certain Embaffadors, who had been employed as Paciyica-
tOrs, not as Mediators; to be kept till fuch Time as the Rati-
ications had been exchanged. So, the Archbifhop of Pifa,
the Duke of 'flciany's Embafrador at Mladrid, was never
efteemed a Mediator, tho' the French Embaffadors allow'd
him to be prefent at the Conferences held with the Commif-
fioners of Spain, to adt as a Pacificator of the Differences be-
tween 'em. The Grand Duke had not offer'd his Mediation;
nor wou'd France have accepted it. Wicquef wrt. p. 2. Sod.
PACK in Commerce. At Pack of Wool is a Horfe's Load,
containing 17 Stone, and 2 Pounds, or 240 Pound Weight.
See SARPLAR and WOOL.
PACT, PACTUM, or PACTION in Law, a Treaty, Co-
venant or Convention between divers Parties. See CovE-
NANT.
The Word is form'd of the Latin paciji, to bargain, a-
gree, Ea                                    t
The Lawyers Cay, Biv nudo patro non oritur Leex. See CoN-
TRACT.
PACTUM, PACTIO, PACT is particularly ufed in the
Civil Law, for the Confent of two or more Parties to the fame
Thing.
.Eoriti autplurifum in idem confenrus. L. III. q. a. iffdepaais.
There are two Species of Conventions, viz. the Pacf and
Contrat. A Patt againfi good Manners, againil publick or
natural Equity,is ull.
PACTA Conventa, in Poland, are the Articles agreed on
between the King and the Republic ; and which they mutu-
ally oblige each other to obferve.
PADDOCK or Padiock-Courfe, a Piece of Ground, conve-
niently taken out of a Park, ordinarily a Mile long, and a
Quarter of a Mile broad, encompaaed with Pales, or a Wall,
for the exhibiting of Races with Greyhounds for Wagers,
Plates, or the like. See PARE.
At one End of the Paddock is a little Houfe,where the Dogs
are to be enter'd, and whence they are flipp'd, near which are
Penns to inclofe two or three Deer for the Sport.
The Deer, when turn'd loofe, run all along by the Pale ; and
the Spcdators are placed on the other Side.
Along the Courfe are feveral Polls, 'viz. the law-pofj, I6o
Yards from the Dog-houfe and Penns. The    tarter of Mile
Poj?, Half AMile Pof, Pinching-pe5; and the Ditch, a Place
made to receive the Deer, and preferve 'em from further Pur-
fuit.
Near the Ditch, are placed Judges or Triers. The Keeper,
to flip the Dogs fairly, puts a falling Collar upon each, to flip
thro' a Ring, and the Deer being turned loofe and put for-
ward by a l~eazer, as Coon as it is arrived at the Law-poll,
the Dog-houfe Door is thrown open and the Dogs flipp d
If, nOW, the Deer fwerve Co much, as that his Head is
judg'd nearer the Dog-houfe than the Ditch, before he arrive
at the Pinching-pofll; it is no Match; but mull be run over
again three Days after. If there be no fuch Swerve, but the
Deer runs firaight as far as the Pinching-poil, then the Dog
nearefi him, if he chance to Cwerve, or by any Accident,
be blanch'd; or if there be no fuch Swerve, gC. the Dog
that leaps the Ditch firfl, wins the Match.
PADUJAN, among Medallills, a Modern Medal in Imita-
tion of the Antique; or a new Medal firuck with all the
Marks and CharadersofAntiquity. See MEDAL.
9A                            The


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