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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
(1728)

Journey-man - juxta-position,   pp. 405-414 PDF (9.7 MB)


K - Kystus,   pp. 414-424 PDF (10.6 MB)


Page 414


KCA B                        4 4)                          KEB
Women had a fhare in them; Xthey were the fame with     any Body, whereby
they are joined and combined toge
the Neroniana.                                          ther.
JUXTA-POSITION, is that Difpofition of Parts in
K        A double Confonant, and the zoth Letter of the
Alphabet.   It is borrowed from  the Greek
Kappa 5 and was but little ufed among the La-
tins. Prtfcian looked on it as a fuperfluous
Letter, and fays, it was never to be uted except in words
borrowed from the Greek. Datfquius, after Sal<,) obferves,
that it was unknown to the antient Romans. Indeed we
feldom find it in any Latin Authors, excepting in the
word Kalends, where it fornetimes flands in lieu of a C.
>arbhage is frequently fpelt on Medals with a K, SALVIS
AUGG. CAES. F i L. KART. and Sometimes the Let-
ter K alone flood for Cartbage.  M. Beger has obferved,
that a Capital K, on the Reverfe of the Medals of the
Emperors of Conjlantinople, fignified KONSTANTINUS;
and on the Greek Medals he will have it to fignify KOJAH
s TPI A, C  -/ ria. Lipfius obferves, that K was a Stygma
antiently marked on the Foreheads of Criminals with a
red-hot Iron ; and Quintilian tells us, that in his time fome
People had gotten a miflaken Notion, that wherever the
Letters C and A occurred at the beginning of a Word, K
ought to be ufed inflead of the C.
The Letter K has various Significations in old Charters
and Diploma's ; fir Inflance, K R flood for Chorus, K R. C
for Cara (Civita5, K R M for Carmen, K R. A M. N, Carus A-
mnicus noJi er, K S Chaos, K T Capite tonfvs, &c.
The Frrncb never ufe the Letter K, excepting in a few
Terms of Art, and proper Names borrowed from other
Countries. Ablakccurt, in his Dialogue of the Letters,
brings in K complaining, that he has been often in a fair
way to be baniflied out of the 1rebch Alphabet, and con-
fined to the Countries of the North.  In Engli/l the K  is
ufed much more than needs be, particularly at the ends
of Words after C, as in Publick, Phyfick, Wc. where it
is of no manner of Service.
K is alfo a Numeral Letter, fignifying 25o, according
to the Verfe;
K quoque ducentos U quinquaginta tenebit.
When it had a Stroke at top, it flood for I 50000.
KABIN, or KEBIN, a temporary Marriage, in ure a-
mong the Mabometans.  The Kabin is contraa1ed before
the Cadi, in whofe Prefence the Man efpoufes the Woman
for a certain time, upon condition that if he quits her at
the end of that Term, ihe fliall be allowed a certain Surn
of Money. Some Authors fay, that the Kabin is only
permitted among the Perfians, and in the SeEt of At1; but
othersmaintain that it is alfo pradlifed among the Turks.
KADARE, or KADARITE, the Name of a Sed a-
mong the ahloometans, who deny the Favourite Tenet of
the I'Mululiecn, Predeflination; and maintain the Doc-
trine of Liberty and Free-Will in all its Latitude.
KALENDAR, See Calendar.
KALENDS. See Calends.
KALI, a Plant, otherwife called Glaffwort; it grows
In the Sands on the Sea-lhore, where the People fow it
in order to burn it green. Of its Afhes they make Soap,
Glafs, Alkali-Salt, Lec. This Plant grows in great
abundance in E&pt and Syria; its Name Kali was given it
by the Arabs. It is found pretty plentifully, too, in Lan-
'uedoc, where the People turn it to a very good account.
Their tnanner of preparing it is this: 'When the Tree is
grown up to its pitch, they cut it down, and let it dry; af-
terwards they burn and 'calcine it in certain Pits like Lime-
Kilns dug in the Ground for that purpofe, which are clofe
covered up with Earth, fo as no Air may come at the Fire.
The Matter' by this means is not reduced into Allies
only, but made into a very hard Stone, like Rock-
Salt, which they are forced to break with Hammers to
get it out, and this Matter they call Salicor, or Soude en
Pierre. They make fuch Quantities of it here, that they
export it into feveral other Countries, but principally into
Iraly, where the Venetians manufature it into thofe beau-
tiful Glaffes, which they afterwards return into moft
Countries in Exrope. However, the Salicor made here is
inferiour to that brought from A1icant.  The bell is in
little dry forforousStonees, of i blueifh grey Colour, and
full of little Eyes or Holes. z
KAN, the Namie of an Officer in 'Perfia. The Kans
are the fame things in Perfia that Governours are in Eu-
rope: There are Kans of Provinces, Countries, and Citieg,
who have diferent Additions to diflinguih thiem.
KAPI, a Term in the Eajfern Countries for Gate. Thus
the chief Gate of the Palace of the Emperor of Peifia is
called Alla Kapi, the Gate of God. Thus alfo the Officer
who has the Command of the Grand Signior's Palace-
Gates, is called Ka i bi Bachi.
KARATA, a kind of Aloes growing in America. ias
Leaves, when boiled, are made into a Thread, of good
ufe in making Cloth, Filhing-Nets, W3c.  Its Root, or
Leaves, thrown into the River, flun the Fifhes to that
degree, that theyare eafily taken with the Hand. Its
Stalk, when dried and burnt, burns like a Match ;5 and
when briskly rubbed on a harder Wood, takes fire, and
confuumes itfelf.
KARKRONI, a Building where the Royal Manufic-
tures of Perfia are carried on. Here are made their Ta-
pefiries, Cloth of Gold, Silk, Wool, and Brocades, Vel-
vets, Taffeta's, Coats of Mail, Sabres, Bows, Arrows,
and other Arms. There are alfo Painters in Miniature,
Goldfmiths, Lapidaries, Wc.
KARLE, a Saxon Word, ufed in our Laws, Sometimes
for a Man, and fometimes for a Servant, or Clown. Hence
the Saxons call a Seaman a Bufcarle, and a Domeflic Ser-
vant Hufcarle: whence, by Corruption, comes our word
Churle.
KASI, a Term in the Eaft, applied to the fourth Pon-
tiff of Perfia, who, at the fame time, is the fecond Civil
Lieutenant, and judges of Temporal as well as Spiritual
Affairs. He has two Deputies who determine Matters of
lets Confequence, particularly Quarrels arifing in Coffee-
houtes, which make a great part of their Bufinefs.
KAURYSAOUL, a Body of Soldiers, who form the
lall of the five Bodies of the King of Teria's Guards,
The are in Number 2030, all Horfe, commanded by
the onflable, and in his Abfence by the Captain of tho
Watch. They keep watch in the Night around the Pa-
lace, terve to keep off the Crowd when the King goes
on Horfeback, keep Silence at the Audience of Ambaffa-
dors, feize the Kans and other Officers when ditgracedi
and cut off their Heads when the King corn mands it.
KAY, a Wharf or Place by the Water-fi&c  in a Sea-
Port, for the loading and unloading of Merchandiz 'zhe
Number of thefe in England is determined by A& of Par-
liament. The Verb cajare, in old Writers, according to
Scaliger, fignifles to keep in or refirain ; and hence came
our Term Kay; the Ground where they are made being
bound in with Planks and Polls.
KAYAGE, the Money, or Toll, paid for loading or
unloading Wares at Kays.
KEBER, the Name of a Sed among the Perfians.
Thofe of this Sed are, for the generality, rich Merchants.
Tho' they inhabit in the middle of Perfia, and are found
in great Numbers in the Suburbs of Ifaban, yet 'tia
not known, whether. or no they are originally Perfiansi
as having nothing in common with the other Perfians but
the Language.  They are dillinguilhed by their Beard,
which they wear very long, and by their Drefs, which is
,quite different from the refd. They are in effed Heathens,
but are in great Reputation for the Regularity of their
Life. Some Authors fay they adore the Fire, in imitation
of the antient Perfians; but this is contradiaed by others t
They believe the Immortality of the Soul, and have
fome things like what the Antients taught of Hell and
the Elyfian Fields. When any of them die, they let loofe a
Cock in his Houfe, and drive it out into a Field ; if a Fox
feizes it, and bears it of, they make no doubt but the
Soul of the Defunft is faved. If this firll Experiment
don't fatisfy them, they have recourfe to a fecond, which
is conclufive; they carry the Carcats into the Church-
yard, and prop it up againft the Wall with a Fork; if
the Birds peck out the right Eye, they look on him as
one of the Predeflinated, and bury him with a great deal
of Ceremony, letting him down gently into the Grave;
but if the Birds begin with the left Eye, they conclude
him a Reprobate, and throw him headlong into a Ditch.
The wordKeberfignifies Infidel, from the TarkiAKeapber,
a Renegado, or, rather, they -both come from  m:-, Caphar,
which, in the Cbhaldee, Syriac, and Arabic, fi-nifies to denv.
K.EBLEH,orKIBLEH, a Term ufed among the Turks,
for that Point or Quarter to which they turn therifelves
when they make their Prayers. Mabotnet at firfi durtl not
propofe any other Kebeb to his Followers but the Temple
of


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