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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Forum - friction,   pp. 81-100 PDF (19.6 MB)

Page 82

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Places I or by the Salts of the Earth, they have been pre-
fertdente, and fometimes petrify'd. See DELUGE.
Others think, that thofe Shells, found at the Tops of the
highdfl Mountains, could never have been carried thither
by the Waters, even of the Deluge; inafmuch as tnofi of
thefe aquaticAnimals,by reafon of the Weight of their Shells,
always remain at the Bottom of the Water, and never move
but clofe along the Ground..
They imagine, that a Year's Continuance of the Waters
of the Deluge, intermix'd with the falt Waters of the Sea,
upon the Surface of the Earth, might well give occafion to
the Produdion of Shells of divers kinds in different Cli-
mates; and that the universal Saltnefs of the Water was
the real Caufe of their Refemblance with the Sea Shells.
The Lakes form'd dayly by the Retention of Rain, or Spring
Water, produce diffeient Kinds.
O:hers think, that the Waters of the Sea, and the Ri-
vers, with thofe which fell from Heaven, turn'd the whole
Surface of the Earth upfide down, after the fame manner
as the Waters of the Loirn, and other Rivers, which roll
in a Sandy Bottom overturn all their Sands, and even
the Earth it felf, in their Swellings and Inundations: And
that in this General Subverfion, the Shells come to be in-
terr'd here, Fillies there, Trees there, bec. See the !ourn.
des Scavans, M.DCC XV. p. x9. and the Memn. de 5rrev.
But no body has fet this Sentiment in a better Light, than
Dr. Woodward, in his Nat. Hiflory of the Earth. That
Ingenious Author maintains the whole Maps of Earth, with
every thing belonging thereto, to have been fo broke, and
difolv'd, at the Time of the Deluge, that a new Earth was
form'd in the Bofom of the Water, confifling of diiahrent
Strata, or Beds of terrefirial Matter, ranged over each other
nearly, according to the Order of their fpecifick Gravities.
See STRATA. By this means, Plants, Animals, and efpe-
cially Fillies, and Shells, not yet difolv'd among the refi,
remain'd mix'd and blended among the Mineral and Fof-
fil Matters; which preferv'd them, or at leaft affuum'd and
retain'd their Figures and Impreffions, either indentedly, or
in Relievo.
Camerarius attacks this Sentiment of Dr. Wood'ward, and
goes yet higher. He fuppofes 10 That the greatell Part of
the Shells now dug from under Ground, had been plac'd
there before the Deluge, that is, at the Time of the Crea-
tion, when God Separated the Earth from Waters. 2f That
without having recourle to the Diffolution of the Earth by
the Waters, one might fuppofe mofi of them to have flipp'd
in at the Chinks and Crevices naturally happening after
the Waters were retir'd, and the Earth fuffliciently drain'd.
,a That particular Inundations might have fwept moil of
thefe Shells into the Places where we now find them. 40
That the Sea may have wrought, or caft up moil of there
Shells through fubterraneous Spiracles and Canals. 5f That
GOD has created divers Stony and Metalline Bodies, per-
fecdly like the Vegetables and Animals, we fee on Earth,
and in the Sea.-
To all thefe Suppofitions, Dr. Woodward anfwcrs, If' That
it is no ways probable, God mhould create fuch a Number
of Shell-filh of the fame Species at once; and that purely
with a Defign to deftroy them all again fo foon after: That
among the jobl Shells of the fame Species, 'tis eafy to di-
flinguilh different Ages: That fome appear precifely fuch
as we now find them in the Spring, the Seafon when the
Deluge began: That 'tis not only Shells, we find under
Ground, but alfo Bones of Quadrupeds, Plants, and Trees
of extraordinary Sizes; and which are not of the Nutnber
of Aquaticks: And laftly, that the Waters/were Separated
from the Earth on the third Day; and that none of thefe
Things were created, till afterwards. ^0 That, on the fe-
cond Suppofition, thefe Shells would be difpos'd perpendi-
cularly, and not horizontally, as they are always found:
That we mhould Sometimes find of them in the CGefts of the
Earth, of which there is none but where they are broke.
39That we have noAcquaintance with any ofthefe pretended
Inundations: That they could never have brought Shells,
Stags Horns, and Elephants from America, and the Eaft
Indies, to England and other Parts of Ewrope a Nor thofe
Pines and Beeches, frequently found far greater than any
of our Growth. Add, that thefe particular Inundations
mufi have rifen to the Tops of the highefi Mountains, and
of consequence mufl have been general. 40 On the fourth
Suppofition it mufl be held, that God did not only create all
thefe feveral Bodies in the Entrails of the Earth; but their fe-
veral Parts, and the feparate Pieces and Fragments of thofe
Parts; a Piece of a Shell, for Inflance; a Side of a Shell,which
confifis of two; a Shell void of the Fifh it mhould contain;
Beards of Corn, without the Grain; Pieces of Cedar Bark,
without Wood; Pieces of Bullocks Hides without Flefh
and Bones - human Skins without Bodies; a Bone without
the ref of' the Skeleton; a Tooth without the jaw, Fic.
Add, that the fojil Shells have not only external, but effen-
tial Refemblages tW Sea Shells i both, e. gr. Yielding, by
Analyfia, a Quantity of Sea
Teeth of illies, we meet wii
laftly, that the Shell Filh ca
Tongue, by means whereof
picks the Fifli out of thtem
Ground we aftually meet wi
pierc'd. Can fuch minute, td
the accidental EfFea of a L
This is the Subflcance of
vanced on the Point.
FOSTERLEA)N, antiently
the fame with what we now c
The Word is originally '
exhibitio, that is, a Stipend
Poftea fciendum e/I cni Pc
Rtrigdunie, EF plegient amici
FOTUS, in Medicine, th4
FOVEA Cordis, the Holloi
little Mine, in manner of a W
in Width, and twelve in Depth; dug under fomteWork, or
piece of Fortification, and ch arg'd with Barrels or Sacks of
Gunpowder. 'Tis fet on fire like other Mines, with a Sau-
cidge. See MINE.
The Word is French. M. DIet derives it from focata, of
focus, Fire.
FOULE, in the Sea Language, is us'd in various Senfes;
viz. When a Ship has been long untrimm'd, fo that Grafes
Weeds, Perriwinkles, Barnacles, or the like flick or grow
to her Sides under Water, lhe is faid to befoule. Again, a
Rope is faid to be foule when it is either tangled in it felf,
or h indred by another, to that it cannot run, or be haled.-
A Ship is faid to make Joule Water, when being under Sail,
lhe comes into fuch Shole,. or low Water, that tro'her Keel
do not touch the Ground; yet She comes fo hear it, that the
Motion of the Water under her raifes the Mud from the
Bottom, and fofouls the Water.
FOUNDATION, that Part of a Building under Ground:
Or, the Mafs of Stone, Cc. which fupports a Building; or
upon which the Walls of a Superftrufture are is'd. Or,
it is the Coffer, or Bed, dug below theievel of'We Ground,
to raife a Building upon; in which Senfe the Foundation
either goes the whole Area and Extent of the Building, as
when there are to be Vaults, Cellars, or the like; or it is
drawn in Cuts, or Trenches, as when only Walls are to be
rais'd. See BUILDING.
The Foundation is properly fo much of the Mafonry, as
reaches as high as the Surface of the Ground; and is always
to be proportion'd to the Load, or Weight of the Building
it is to bear.
Sometimes it is maffive, and continued under the whole
Building ; as in the antique Arches, and Aqueducts, and
fome Amphitheatres: More ufually it is only in Spaces, or
Intervals; either to avoid Expence, or becaufe the Vacuities
are at too great a diflance, in which latter cafe)they make
ufe of infolated Pillars, bound together by Arches.-
That we may found our Habitation firmly,fays Sir TI.Wotton,
we mufl firfi examine the Bed of Earth, upon which we are to
build; and then the Under-cielings, or Subfrru&ion, as theAn-
tients call'd it. For the former, we have a general Precept in
Vitruvius, Subfiruffionis Fundationes fodiantur, fi queavr
inveniri ad folidum F in Jolido: By which he recommends
not only a diligent, but even jealous Examination of what
the Soil will bear- advifing us not to refi upon any appear-
ing Solidity, unlefs the whole Mould thro' which we cut,
have likewife been folid. But how deep we mhould go in this
Search, he has no where determined, as perhaps depending
more on Difcretion, than Regularity, according to the Weight
of the Work: Yet Palladio has ventur'd to reduce it to a
Rule; allowing for the CavafZone, i. e. hollowing or under-
digging, a fixth Part of the Height of the whole Fabrick,
unlefs there be Cellars under Ground, in which cafe be would
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1144v% Is J 1L1W11AL IUWV. Olt £. 'Urotto7 a Ztlem. of
The Foundations of Buildings are either Natural,
Natural, as when we build on a Rock, or a very folid
in which cafe we need not feek for any further Strer
But, if the Ground be fandy, or marihy, or have
been dug; in fuch cafe recourfe muff be had to Art.
former (afe, the Archite&t muft adjuft the Depth
Foundation by the Height, Weight, Fic. of the Buildi
fixth Part of the whole Height is look'd on as a
And as to Thicknefs, double that of the Width of th
is a good Rule.
Where the Natural Foundation may not be truffe,
either fortify the Ground by pallioig it, i. e. drivin
of Pilesi fee PALLIFICATION: Or elfe lay large
Planks at the Bottom of the Trenches, dug for the i

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