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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Forum - friction,   pp. 81-100 PDF (19.6 MB)

Page 81

( 8i)
ints the Goddefs, preceded by Neceffity, hold-
n  Wedges in her Hands, with a Cram-ironn
Lead to faffen it; rarely accompanied with Fi-
when The abandons a Family; Tor in that cafe
er fails to depart with her, as well as Friends.
:ers reprefent her in a Woman's Habit, with a
fire her Eyes, to Ihew that The acts without Dif-
aanding on a  Wheel, to exprefs her Inf lability.
s,, s fays Laeariuseeprefented her with a Cor-
Id the Helm offa Ship, to   lhew  that Iee difri-
,s Riches, and direds the Affairs of the World. In et-
, 'tis with fuch Chara6}ers, that we fee her re refented
fo many Medals, with the Infcriptions, FOR?    N A
REDUUIS,&c. SometimesIhe is feen pointing at aGlobe
.before her Feet, with a Sceptre in one hand, holding the
Cornucopia in the other.
. The Romans had a Male, and Female Fortune for the
Objeas of their Adoration: The Fortuna Virilis, honour'd
by the Men; and the Fortuna Muliebris, by the Women.
On the Reverfe of a Medal of Comzodus, we have a Re-
prefentation of Fortune, under the Quality, or Surname of
Maxens, i. e. flable, permanent; holding a Horfe by the
Reins. On the Greek Medals we meet with AFAOII, or
KAAH TTXH, Good Fortune. Coonftantine gave the Epithet
A4nthoujria, i. e. flourifhing, to the Fortune of his new City
FORUM, in Antiquity, is us'd in divers Acceptations.
Sometimes for a Place of Negotiation, or Merchandizing,
anfwering to our Market Place; in which fenfe it has ufually
fome Adjerive added to it,   as Forum fBoarium, the Beaft
Market; Forum Pifearium, the Fifh Market; Olitorium
Forum, the Herb Market, Ti. See MARKET.
FORum, again, is us'd for any Place, where the Governor
of a Province convenes his People, to give Judgment, aC-
cording to Courfe of Law: Whence a Man is Said Forum
agere, when he keeps the Affizes; Forum indicere, when
he appoints the Place where they are to be kept, Ec.
FoRum is a]fo a publick Standing Place in the City of
Roome, where Caufes were judicially try'd, and Orations deli-
ver'd to the People.
Of thefe, Forums there were feveral; at firfi only three,
viz. Rorian,_um, lianum, and Auguftum: But that Num-
ber was afterwards increas'd to fix, by the Addition of the
'ran./itorium, call'd alfo Palladium ; the rrojanum, and
Sai fii i Forum.
The fir t, and mofi eminent of thefe, was the Forum
- 2omanum, call'd alfo Forum Vents; and abfolutely, Forum,
was an Apartment, cali'd the Rofira, where the
pleaded; the Officers harangued ; Funeral Ora-
e   deliver'd, E.gc. See RosTRA.
fame Forum was the Comitivm, or Hall of Juffice,
S aniuary of Saturn, the Temple of Caftor, &c.
i is alfo us'd among Cafuifis, Eec. for Jurifilion.
they fay in Foro Legis, or the Outer Forum, i. e.
ye of the Law, or the common Courfe of Jufilice:
fonfcientie, or the Inner Forum, i. e. in the Eye of
r a Man's own Confcience.
are a great many things not condemn'd in Foro
hich yet are criminal in Foro Confcientie.-
in Fortification, sc. a D isch, or Moat.  See
W ord is fbrm'd of the Participle Fo/rum, of the
io, I dig.-
in Anatomy, a kind of Cavity in a Bone, with a
erture, but no Exit, or Perforation.
the Aperture is very narrow, it is called a SINUS.
Cranium there are fix internal, and fourteen ex-
qTes. The Cavity of the Orbit, which contains the
particularly us'd for a Cavity, or Denture in the
t of the Neck. See NECK.
lay, was antiently one of the four great Highways
I d; fo call'd, becaufe in fome Places it was never
but left as a great Ditch. See WAY, fee alfo
IG Street.
Al Magna, or Navicularis, is an oblong Cavity,
:he Infide of the Pudendum Muliebre, and which
t felf upon opening the Labia; and in the Middle
are the Caruncuhe Ayrtiformes.  See PUDENIbUM.
in our antient Cufloms, was a Ditch, full of Wa-
*e Women; committing Felony, were drowned; but
v ipfi in omnibus tenementis fuis omnem ab an-
tein habuere juflitiam, videlicet ferrum, foffam,
! fimiia. See FUR CA.
ther Senfe 'tis taken for a Grave, as appears by
1 Verfes.
jacent in Fofsa 8BEnE venerabilis oic7a,
eft fi~atus, qui his erat hit cate'dratus.
FOSSAR11, in AntiquityI a kind of Officers in the Eafleth
Church, whofe Bufinefs was, to inter the Dead.
Ciaconius relates, that Confrantine created 9t50 Fofaries;
whom he took out of the divers Colleges or Companies of
Tradefinen: He adds, that they were exempptd from Taxes,
Services, onerary Offices, &c.
Fa. Goar, in hisNotes on the GrerkEucbcoog os, infinuatesi
that the   Afarii were efib ihlih'd in the times of the Apo-
ftles; and that the young Men" who carried off the Body
of Ananias, and thofe erfons full of the Fear of GOD,
who interr'd St. Stephen, were of the Number.
St7 erom affures us that the Rank of Fo/faris held the irf
Place among the Clerks: But he is to be underflood of thofe
who had the Direaion and Intendance of the Interment of
the Devout.
FOSSIL Kingdom. The Chemifis divide all Bodies into
three Claffes, or Kingdoms ;  viz. Foqftl, or .Mine al1 Vee-
getablei and Animal. See each in its Place, FOSSIL, VE-
FossFL, in Natural iiflory, is us'd, in a general Senfe,
for any thing dug up, or found under Ground. Such are
all M'Iinerals, Metals, Rook Salts, &c.
There are alfo Fo/Jil Salt Petre, FI/l Borax, L c.
FoFsILs may be diffinguifli'd into iO Such as are Natives
of the Earth * and 20 Such as are adventitious and repo-
fited therein fy any extraordinary Means, as Earthquakes,
Deluges, &c.
Native Fossits, or FossILs properly fo called are firidty
defin'd to be fenfible Bodies generated, and growing in,
and of the Earth; whofe conflituent Parts are fo firn ple,
and homogeneous, that there is no apparent Diflinaion of
Veffels, and juices; between the Part, and the Whole.
Native Joilils are either Simple, or Compomid.
Simple FOSSILS are thofe, whofe Parts, however divided,
are all of the fame Nature, i. e. of the fame Gravity, Mag-
nitude, Figure, Hardnefs, and Mobility.
Such is Quuickfilver, which, however divided, is always
found the faee.
Comnpoud Fs       are thofe which may be divided into
different, or diffiimilar Parts.
As Antimony, which may be refolv'd by Fire into Sul-
phur, and a Metalline Part.
The Simple FoIgls are all Metals, Salts, Stones, both
vulgar and pretious, and Earths. See METAL, SALT,
The Compound FossILs are all Sulphurs, all Serm ietalsi
or what we properly call Mil'inerals; and all Bodies com-
bin'd out of any two, or more of the preceding, either
Simple, or Compound Foftlls.  See SULruuR, and SEx I-
Adventitious, or Foreig n FoSsILs , include the fubterra-
neous Exuivix of Sea and Land Animals, and even vegeta-
bles; as Shells, Bones, Teeth, Leaves, Stalks, Ièc. which are
found in great Abundance, in divers Parts of the Earth.
Thefe Extraneous Forifls have employ'd the Curiofity of
feveral of our lateff and beft Naturalifts, who have each
their Leveral Syflem to account for the furprizing Appear-
ances of petrify'd Sea-fiflies, in Places8far remote from the
Sea, and on the Tops of Mountains: Shells in the Middle
of Quarries of Stones: Elephants Teeth, and Bones of di-
vers Animals, peculiar to the Southern Climates; and Plants
only growing in the Eaff, found in our Northern and We-
fiern  Parts. See SIELL, &C.
Some will have thefe Shells, g c. to be real Stones, and
Stone Plants, form'd after the ufual manner of other figur'd
Stones, and Stone Plants: Of which Opinion is our learned
Dr. Lifter.
That Author, tho' he allows of petrify'd Shells on the
Sea Shores, will by no means agree, that there are any fuch
Petrifaa~ions in the Midland Countries.  The Shell-liko
Stones, found in our Quarries, he contends, are Lapides fid
generis; and never were any Part of an Animal.
His Reafions are, that their Matter, and Texture, is per-
feffly the fame with that of the Rock, or Quarrywber they
are taken; as Iron-sone Shells are all Iron-fone; Spar, or
Cryflalline, all Sparr, Lqc. That Quarries of different Stone
yield different Sorts of thefe Shells: And that there are no
Animals in Nature, which yield any thing exaaly like them.'
See STONE, and STONE 'Plant.
But IO Thefe Shells found under Ground, are perfedtly
conformable to thofe in the Sea in Figure, Subfance, 'lMag-
nitude, &5c. a% The Subflance of thefe Fofils differs efen-
tially from the common Subfiance of Stones. 'Tis true, we
frequently find them cover'd, or incruflated with a Mineral
or Stony Matter, which has gradually infinuated it elf into
the Pores ; but it is eafy difinguifhing that Matter from the
Subftance of the Shell.
The common Opinton is, that thefe foffil Shells, with slt
other foreign Boaies, found within the Earth, as Bones,
Trees, Plants, gG. were buried therein at the time of the
univerfal Deluge; and that having been pen ted either
by tho Bituminous Matter, abounding chiefIy i wery
X                  Placesa

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