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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning
(1728)

Diagram - dionysiaca,   pp. 199-218 PDF (19.2 MB)


Page 210


DIC
Pro ortioh of 9 to 8, as being th,
of Tiapewte and Diateffaron.
DICHOTOMY,        iffetion, -ai
riers for that Phafis, or Appearar
in ihe is bifleded, or Ihews juft he
See PHASIS.
The Time of the Moon's Dichoi
Ufe in fixing the Sun's Di flance fri
ve.difficult to fix the precife Mon
-.a --]   ho !__   I_-   - -   C1);,Ar tnqi1t
Flll1U.L~U, oF In n cr LI UU .e-' r"vs --j. , '.
us, that when She is 3o Minutes diflant from the Quadra-
'rurcs, The appears biffac.ed  but the appears fo too in the
Quadratures themfelvcs, and fome time afterwards, as Ric-
ciolvs acknowledges in his 4lmageJ?. So that fhe appears
2Dichotomized at leaft for the Space of a whole  Hour:
In which Time, any Moment may be taken for the true
Point of the Dlichotomy, as well as any other.  But the
infinite Number of Moments of Time give an infinite Di-
verfity of Diflances. The Moment in which the true Di-
chotomy happens, being thus uncertain; but it being grant-
ed withal that it happens before the Quadrature, Ricciolus
takes the middle Point between the Quadrature, and the
Time when it is firfi dubious, whether the Moon be Dicko-
tomnized, or not, for the true !Dichotony, Keill.
The Word is Greek, form'd of AXoToyuA0, I bite7, or
cut in two, of PIt, tieice; and TiyV, 7i7OJ.L, Icut.
DICTAMNUM, fDittany, a Medicinal Plant, much va-
lued among the Ancients, and particularly applauded by
their Poets.
It was efleemed a Specific for Wounds of Arrows, which
it drew out with wonderful Eafe, and according to them,
only grew in the Ifland of Crete, and even only in a little
obfcure Corner thereof; whence its Appellation fbi~famnus
Creticus.  At prefent we fcarce know whether there be
any Remains thereof in that IWand.
The modern Ditamnius, call'd alfo White fDittany, or
Fraxinella, from its Leaves, which refemble thofe of the
Aflh, call'd by the Latins Fraxinus, is fcarce in lefs Efleem
than that of the Ancients. Its Root, wherein all its Virtue
is lodged, is about the Thicknefs of a Finger, and is fre-
quently divided into a Number of little Branches; its Co-
lour is white, its Tafle bitter, its Smell firong, fomewhat
like that of a He-goat, its Stem is about two Foot high,
reddifh, and full of Leaves; at the Top of the Stem is a
Flower not unlike a Spica, or Ear; in the Middle of the
Flower is a Piftil with five little Pieces wherein the Seed
is contain'd, which is black, Thining, and oval. The Root
is excellent againfi the Bite of venomous Beafis, as alfo
againfl Worms, the Colick, tic. It muft be chofen white,
both Infide and Outfide, not fibrous, and well cleaned.
There are feveral other Kinds of fDittany, but all of lefs
Value : As the Baftard Dittany, whofe Leaves are much
lefs i the WYild D)ittany, which neither bearsFlowers, nor
Fruit.
The Ancients have a Tradition, that the wounded Deer
firfi difcover'd the Virtue  of the Diaamnus Creti-
ces, which being eaten, prefently drew out the Arrows
flicking in 'em. Thus TPliny Lib. VIII. C. 27. And the
like Account we have from Cicero de Natur. -ZDeor. Lib.II.
Virgil. hEneid. Lib. XII. v. 41 2. 7ertullI. de 'Pcenit. C.XI.
Tho' Cicero, more prudent and referved than Pliny, is con-
tented to fpeak of it as by hear-fay. 4rijtotle Lib. de Mi-
rabilib. .Afcult. relates it of the Roe-buck.  Pliny fays
exprefsly, that the Juice of this Plant 'taken inwardly, ex-
pels Arrows, and cures Wounds made with other Arms:
Me adds, that it flops Suppurations, provokes the Menfes,
and Delivery, and is good in Frictions and Fumiga-
tions.
DICTATE, Dfiaamen, in the Schools, a Suggeflion,
Motion, or Sentiment of a Man's Confcience.
A  good Adion becomes evil if done contrary to the
!Didates of one's own Confcience.
DICTATE, LDiJata, is likewife ufed in the Schools for
a Leffon, or Exercife, wherein the Mafler reading, or fpeak-
ing Something, the Scholars take it down in Writing after
him.   Here the Aft of the Mafiter is likewife call'd
DICTATOR, a Roman Magifirate, created by the Se-
nate, or People, on fome extraordinary, and eminent Occa-
lion, to command,. with foveraign Authority, for a certain
Time never exceeding fix Months.
Recourfe was never had to fuch an Officer, but in dan-
gerous, and difficult Times ; as in fudden Wars, Popular
Tadions, Ad.
He had abfolute, and Monarchic Power while his Diaa-
ture lafted: And fome will even have it, his Power went
beyond that of the Kings.  He was Arbiter of Peace and
War, and had Command of Life and Death, without any
Appeals lying to the People,  24 Axes were bore befoire
him, whereas only iz before the CQnful. See FASCES.
Cnujs difo audientes omnzes effent..
DICTION, the Phrafe, Elocution, or Style of a Writer,
or Speaker. See STYLE.
The Ditlion of a Tragedy, Uc. is that which expreTes
the Sentiments. See SENTIMENT.
The !Diflion of an Orator fhould be pure, proper to
the Subjeft, rich without Affiefation, ffrong  and dofe
without Drynefs, and fuitable to the Perfon, Time, Place,
and Audience.  The Dtiion, or Language of T'raged is
accounted the fourth of the Effential Parts thereof It
is of the leaft Importance of any ; yet muft peculiar Care
be taken herein' to make every Paffion fpeak its proper
Language. See TRAGEnY, tC. ,        -        I X
DICTIONARY, a Collection, or Catalogue of all the
Words of a Language, or an Art, with their Significa-.
tions; rang'd in Order of Alphabet. See ALPHABET.
What the Latins, and we after them, call fDidionary,
the Greeks call Lexicon. See LEXICON.
For the proper Charadler,, Nature, Office, Wc. of a
Ditaionary, f-ee the Preface to this Work. See alfo the
Article VOCABULARY.
The moflt ancient Didionaries for the Latin Tongue, are,
that call'd Papias, compiled by Solomon, Abbot of St.
Ga!l, Bilhop of Conflance, who liv'd about the Year 1409:
Another was made in 1469, call'd Gemma Vocabularum:
And a third in I50o, call'd Gemma Gemmarum: An-
other by fDionyfius Neftor, a Cordelier.
But the moft celebrated one was that of .Ambrofe Cale-
pine, a Hermit of St. Augvjlin at Bergamo, and Son of the
Count of Calepin. Conra4d Gefsner is faid to have aug-
mented it with four thoufand Words. Paulus Manutius
increafed it ftill more; and Pafrerat after him; and yet
Matthias Martinus made two Volumes of their Omif-
fions.
There is another noted Latin Dic ionary of Cri/pi-
vus; To fay nothing of Cowper, Holyoke, Goldman,
Littleton, and numerous others of lefs Confideration.
For the Greek, we have thofe of Henry Stephens, and
Scapula: For the Spanijb, that of Covarruvias: For the
Italian, that of the Academy della Crufca: For the
French, thofe of Nicod. Fa. Monet; Fa. Gaudin, J're-
voux, and that of the Frenoh Academy: For the EngliJh,
we have fcarce any worth the Mentioning, unlefs perhaps
that of Philipps: Tho' we are in Expedation of one
from a good Hand, on the Model of that of the French
Academy.
7unius has a Di~tionary, or Alphabet of the Gothic,
Runic, and Anglo-Saxon.  There is another in the Ma-
laya Language, which is a dead Language, famous through-
out the Eaft Indies, where it hands the Read of the Latin
among us.
There are alfo Hiftorical, and Geographical fDiaio-
naries, as that of Charles Stephens, which is tranflated in-
to French, and augmented by Morery: Another of Hof
Mann, printed at Bafil, in I 67 7. in two Volumes Folio;
which were followed by a Continuation of as many Volumes
in 1683.  Another of Mr. Bayle, under the Title of Hiflo-
rical, and Critical Ditlionary, printed at Rotterdam, in
i697. in two large Volumes.  A Philofophical D0iio-
nary of Mr. Chauvin, of Berlin;   Law Oiftionaries;
fP/yfical !Ditlionaries, Family DVitionaries, Di.liobaries
of Arts, af Commerce, &c.
DIDACTIC, in the Shools, fignifies the manner of fpeak-
ing, Wc. adapted to teach, or explain the Nature of Things.
~There are many Words that are only ufed in theoidaazc,
and Dogmatick Way. The Word is form'd from the Greek
1J'i"a.)u, dirov, I learn.
DIDYMI, the fame -with Gemelli, or, Axins. See GE-
MINI.
DIEM   claufit Extremim, a Writ ifued out of Chan-
cery to the Efcheator of the County,' upon the Death of any
of the King's Tenants in Capite, to enquire by a Jury of
what Lands he died feiz'd: and of what Value, and
who was the next Heir to him.
DILERESIS, Seflion, lDifefion, in Chirurgery, an Ope-
ration ferving to divide, and feparate the Parts whofe
Union and Continuity were an Obilacle to the Cure; or
which were joyn'd, and conglutinated cqintrary to the Or-
der of Nature. See SECTcIoN,
There
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