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Chambers, Ephraim, 1680 (ca.)-1740 / Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences : containing the definitions of the terms, and accounts of the things signify'd thereby, in the several arts, both liberal and mechanical, and the several sciences, human and divine : the figures, kinds, properties, productions, preparations, and uses, of things natural and artificial : the rise, progress, and state of things ecclesiastical, civil, military, and commercial : with the several systems, sects, opinions, &c : among philosophers, divines, mathematicians, physicians, antiquaries, criticks, &c : the whole intended as a course of antient and modern learning

Consort - corporal,   pp. 311-330 PDF (19.0 MB)

Page 312

CO N                            (31
Eye; Pkiades in the Back, and Hyades in the Forehead of
the Bull: Ca/tor and Pollux in the Heads of Gemini; Ca-
Capella, with the Hcedi in the Shoulder of Auriga; Re-
gulus, or Cor Leonis; Spica Virginis in the Hand, and
Vindemiatrix in the Shoulder of Virgo; Antares, or Cor
Scorpii; Fomabaut, in the Mouth of 'Pifcis AuJiralis; Re-
gal, in the Foot of Orion; Sirius, in the Mouth of Canis
Major; and the Pole-Star, the laft in the Tail of Urfa
The Greek and Roman Poets, out of the antient Theolo-
gy, ive us wild and romantick Fables about the Origin of
the Confiellations ; which may be feen in HIyginus, Natalis
Comes, and Ricciolus. Hence, fome out of a vain Zeal,
rather than any Love for the Science, have been mov'd to
alter either the Figures of the Conflellations, or at leaft their
Thus, Venerable !Bede, intlead of the profane Names and
Figures of the twelve Conflellations of the Zodiack, fubtfi-
tured thofe of the twelve Apofiles; whofe Example being
follow'd by Yulius Scbillerus, in I 6z 7, he compleated the
Reformation, and gave Scripture-Names to all the Confiel-
lations in the Heavens.
Thus, Aries, or the Ram, became converted into St. Pe-
ter; I'autrus, or the Bull, into St. Andrewz; iAndromeda in-
to the Sepulchre of Chriff ; Lyra into the Manger of
Chrifs; Hercules into the Magi coming from the Eaft ; Ca-
nis Major into David, &c.
Weigelius, a ProfetTor of Mathemraticks in the Univerfity
of rena, made a new order of Conflellations; converting the
Firmament into a Celum Heraldicum; and introducing the
Arms of all the Princes in EuroPe, by way of Conflellations.
Thus, Urfa Major, he transform'd into the Elephant of
the Kingdom of fDenmark; the Swan into the Ruta with
Swords of the Houre of Saxony; Ophiuci-ns into the Crofs
of Cologne; the Triangle into the Compaffes, which he calls
the Symbol of Artificers; and the Pleiades into the Abacus
Pythagoricus, which he calls that of Merchants, -ec.
But the more knowing among Afironomers never ap-
prov'd of there Innovations; as ferving for no Purpofe but
to introduce Quarrels and Confufion into Afironomy. The
old Conftellations, therefore, are f{ill retain'd ; both becaufe
better could not be fubffituted, and likewife to keep the
greater Correfpondence and Uniformity between the old
Afironomy and the new. See CATALOGUE.
CONSTIPATION, in Medicine, a hardnefs of the A4l-
Vus, or Belly, with a difficulty of discharging the fame;
otherwise call'd Coftivenefs. See COSTIVENESS.
Riding Pofi, eating of Medlars or Quinces, feveral Prepa-
rations of Milk, hard-roafled Eggs, Lic. conflipate the Belly.
A Conflipation of the Belly, if it continue long, fometimes
degenerates into the Iliac Paffion. See ILIAC PaYlion.
Moit Perfons of a hot and dry Conflitution are affliaed
with a Coflivenefs, or Conflipation: But this is feldom at-
tended with any ill Effet.
The proper Remedy for a Conflipation is a Clyfer; if
this fail, lenient Catharticks ; and when they alfo fail, we
mu{l exhibit others of a more draflick or powerful Effea.
CONSTITUTION, an Eflablilhment, Ordinance, De-
cifion, Regulation, or Law, made by Authority of a Prince
or other Superior, Ecclefiaflical or Civil. See LAW, LeC.
The Conjitutions of the Roman Emperors make a Part
of the Civil Law. See CIVIL La-v.
The Conflitutions of the Church, part of the Canon Law.
See CANON Law.
Some of the Papal Conflitutions are in form of Bulls,
others of Briefs. See BULL, BRIEF, CC.
.Apofolical CONSTITUTIONS, are a Collelion of Regula-
tions attributed to the Apofiles, and fuppofed to have been
colleded by S. Clement, whofe Name they likewife bear.
They are divided into eight Books; confifing of a great
Number of Rules and Precepts, relating to the Duties of
Chriflians, and particularly to the Ceremonies and Difci-
pline of the Church.
Authors are divided about their Genuinenefs: The gene-
rality hold them fpurious, and endeavour to prove them po-
*lerior to the Apoffolical Age, and maintain they were un-
known till the fourth Century; which, if fo, Ihews S. Cle-
ment had no hand in 'em.
Mr. Whifion has ventur'd to oppofe the general Opinion;
and with fome Reafon, much Learning, and more Warmth,
afferted the Apoftolical Confititutions to be one of the Sacred
Writings, di~tated by the Apoflles in their Meetings, written
down from their Mouths by S. Clement, and intended as a
Supplement to the New Teflament; *or, rather, as a Scheme
and Syflem of Chriflian Faith and Polity. See his Farly on
the Apoftolical 6okJftitution5, and his Hiftorical Preface;
wherein the feveral Steps he made in his fancied Difcovery
are traced.
What makes the Couftitutions more fufpe61ed by the Or-
thodox, is, that they feem to favour of Arianifm.
CONSTITUVION, is alfo ufed in a phyfi
lemperament of the Body, or that Difpoit
ariflng from the Quality and Proportion
Phyficians have confider'd the Cooftitut
chiefly on the Humors or Juices of the B
as this, or that Humour was fuppofed to
Bile, e. gr. or the Blood, Phlegm, Choler,
Perfon was denominated of a JBilious, Sang
Cboleric, or Mercurial Conftitution. See '
CONSTRICTION, the Ad} of binding
Parts of a Thing clofe together. See Coti
CONSTRICTOR Labiorum, or Orbi
proper to the Lips. See Lip.
Its Fibres make a kind of Ring about
ferve to confiringe and draw up the Lips,
whence fome call it Bafaator.
This, Verheyen will not have to be c
Pair, whofe Fibres meet and join at boa
Mouth; each acaing on one Lip only, tho
Other Authors are unanimous in callii
and will have it of the S hin&er kind
thinks improperly in regard, it is not like
ters in conflant Adtion, but at the Comms
The diffinguilhing Mark between a Sphii
Mufcle. See SPHINCTER.
CONSTRICTOR Palpebrarum. See Oma
CONSTRICTORES Naft, a Pair of Iv
the Ake of the Nofe, and the upper Lip.
They arife flefhy from the Forepart a
of the upper Jaw; and after a firait af
into the Roots of the Al nafz, and fup(
upper Lip. .,
Their ule is to draw tne srfa uuwrzwars, nearer each~
other; and at the fame time draw the upper Lip alfo dowu.'
wards: an Aaion we ufe in taking of Snuf, or fmelling of
any thing.
CONSTRUCTION, in Geometry, the Art or Manner
of drawing, or defcribing a Figure, Scheme, the Lines of a
Problem, or the like. See DESCRIPTION, FIGURE, SC.
The Equality of the Lines of fuch a Triangle, Wc. is
demonfirated from their Conftrutlion. See PROBLEM.
CONSTRUCTION of Equations, is the Method of reducin
a known Equation into Lines and Figures; whereby t
Truth of the Rule, Canon, or Equation, may be demonlira-
ted geometrically. See EQUATION.
This Method of confiru ting Equations is different, act
cording to the Diverfity of Equations. For Simple and ,$#-
dratick Equations the Methods Ihall be here fubjoin'd; As
to Cubic Equations, Geometrical Conftruflions are of no ue
in Practice; their Intent being better anfwer'd by the Me-
thod of extracting Roots by Approximation.
ITo Confirud a flimple Equation: The whole Myflery
confifts in this; that the Fraaions, to which the unknown
Quantity is equal, be refolved into proportional Terms:
The Method of which will be better lhewn by Examples
than taught by many Rules.
I. Suppofe X=  a    then will c a:: b: x, to bed-
termin'd by the Method of finding a fourth Proportional.
2. Suppofe x= d-; let d: a:: 1: d .    This fourth
Proportional found, being call'd g; x  -! whichisthere-
fore found as in the former Cafe.
3. Suppofe x   = acb.    Since aa-ba   D=( ab
(a-b); c: ab:      a-b: X.
. SuppofeX    a2 bb c c   By the firft Cafe we find
a4   asb           b                         be
g=  d = ad} and h= -d; Again, by Cafe r, =
and x =g- i, the Difference of the Lines g and i.
I. Suppofe x =_a-+ --.    Find, as in the preceding
Cafe, g = ac&, and f=  ad . Then will x= g      f be
the Sum of the Lines g andf.
6. Suppofe x _ a'b + b cd   Seek c9, and let f  cg
alf-Jcg           a             a
-b     then will a/+   c g = a h; consequently, X
a' b+bbcd   Thus is the prefent Cafe brought to the prece-
ding one.        a' b - ba d
7. Suppofe x=    ---.       Find b    and make
af +bc                          I'
+  c-h; Then will af+bc=_bih.            Hence, X=
a2 b+bad-a' -ad        Confequently, h:a:: a-d:
8. Suppofe  = (a2 + b2) : c. Conffru&t the Triangle
A B C, (Plate Algebra, Fig. I.) whofe Side A B -a, B C

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